Class 12 Biology Index Page

Class 12 Biology syllabus is prepared by our team of subject experts and the chapters listed below are arranged according to the latest syllabus of CBSE. In this class 12 Biology index, the main chapters list and its sub contents are provided, in order to assist students to learn every concept in-depth and perform their best in the examination.
The complete syllabus for Class 12 Biology is provided here, which students can download and get acquainted with the topics that are essential to study in their respective classes.
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Class 12 Biology Chapters List

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter 1: Reproduction

1.1 Reproduction- A characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species
1.2 Modes of Reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction
1.3 Asexual reproduction
1.3.1 Binary fission
1.3.2 Sporulation
1.3.3 Budding
1.3.4 Gemmule formation
1.3.5 Fragmentation
1.3.6 Vegetative propagation in plants

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

2.1 Flower structure
2.2 Development of male and female gametophytes
2.3 Pollination
2.3.1 Types, agencies and examples
2.4 Outbreeding devices -Pollen-pistil interaction
2.4.1 Double fertilization
2.4.2 Post-fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo
2.5 Development of seed and formation of fruit
2.6 Special modes-
2.6.1 Apomixis
2.6.2 Parthenocarpy
2.6.3 Polyembryony
2.7 Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

3.1 Male and female reproductive system
3.2 Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
3.3 Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis and oogenesis
3.4 Menstrual cycle
3.5 Fertilization
3.6 Embryo development
3.6.1 Blastocyst formation
3.6.2 Implantation
3.7 Pregnancy and placenta formation
3.8 Parturition
3.9 Lactation

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

4.1 Need for reproductive health
4.2 Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
4.3 Birth control – need and methods,
4.3.1 Contraception
4.3.2 Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
4.4 Amniocentesis
4.5 Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT.

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

5.1 Heredity and variation
5.1.1 Mendelian inheritance
5.2 Deviations from Mendelism
5.2.1 Incomplete dominance
5.2.2 Codominance and multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups
5.2.3 Pleiotropy
5.3 Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
5.4 Chromosome theory of inheritance
5.5 Chromosomes and genes
5.6 Sex determination – in human being, birds and honey bee
5.7 Linkage and crossing over
5.8 Sex-linked inheritance
5.8.1 Haemophilia
5.8.2 Colour blindness
5.9 Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia
5.10 Chromosomal disorders in humans
5.11 Down’s syndrome
5.12 Turner’s syndromes
5.13 Klinefelter’s syndrome

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

6.1 Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material
6.2 Structure of DNA
6.2.1 Structure of RNA
6.3 DNA packaging
6.4 DNA replication
6.5 Central Dogma
6.6 Transcription
6.6.1 Genetic code
6.6.2 Translation
6.7 Gene expression and regulation.
6.7.1 Lac operon
6.8.Genome
6.8.1.Human genome project
6.8.2.Rice genome project
6.9.DNA fingerprinting

Chapter-7: Evolution

7.1 Origin of life
7.2 Biological evolution and Evidence for biological evolution
7.2.1 Paleontology
7.2.2 Comparative anatomy
7.2.3 Embryology
7.2.4 Molecular evidence
7.3 Darwin’s contribution
7.3.1 Modern synthetic theory of evolution
7.4 Mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) natural selection with examples
7.5 Types of natural selection
7.6 Gene flow and genetic drift
7.7 Hardy – Weinberg’s principle
7.8 Adaptive radiation
7.9 Human evolution

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

8.1 Pathogens
8.2 Parasites causing human diseases
8.2.1 Malaria
8.2.2 Dengue
8.2.3 Chikungunya
8.2.4 Filariasis
8.2.5 Ascariasis
8.2.6 Typhoid
8.2.7 Pneumonia
8.2.8 Common cold
8.2.9 Amoebiasis
8.2.10 Ringworm
8.3 Basic concepts of immunology
8.3.1 Vaccines
8.3.2 Cancer
8.3.3 HIV and AIDS
8.4 Adolescence – Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

9.1 Animal husbandry
9.2 Plant breeding
9.3 Tissue culture
9.4 Single-cell protein.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

10.1 Microbes in food processing
10.2 Industrial production
10.3 Sewage treatment
10.4 Energy generation
10.5 Microbes as biocontrol agents
10.6 Bio-fertilizers
10.7 Antibiotics production and judicious use

Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

11.1 Genetic Engineering
11.2 Recombinant DNA Technology

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

12.1 Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture
12.1.1 Human insulin
12.1.2 Vaccine production
12.2 Stem cell technology
12.2.1 Gene therapy
12.3 Genetically modified organisms
12.3.1 Bt crops
12.3.2 Transgenic Animals
12.3.3 Biosafety issues
12.3.4 Biopiracy and patents

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

13.1 Organisms and environment
13.1.1 Habitat and niche
13.1.2 Population
13.1.3 Ecological adaptations
13.2 Population interactions
13.2.1 Mutualism
13.2.2 Competition
13.2.3 Predation
13.2.4 Parasitism
13.3 Population attributes
13.3.1 Growth
13.3.2 Birth rate and death rate
13.3.3 Age distribution

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

14.1 Ecosystems: Patterns and components
14.2 Productivity and decomposition
14.3 Energy flow
14.4 Pyramids of number
14.4.1 Biomass
14.4.2 Energy
14.5 Nutrient cycles
14.5.1 Carbon
14.5.2 Phosphorous
14.6 Ecological succession
14.7 Ecological services
14.7.1 Carbon fixation
14.7.2 Pollination
14.7.3 Seed dispersal
14.7.4 Oxygen release

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

15.1 Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance
15.2 Loss of biodiversity
15.3 Biodiversity conservation
15.3.1 Hotspots
15.3.2 Endangered organisms
15.3.3 Extinction
15.3.4 Red Data Book
15.3.5 Sacred Groves
15.3.6 Biosphere reserves
15.3.7 National parks
15.3.8 Wildlife
15.3.9 Sanctuaries
15.3.10 Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

16.1 Air pollution and its control
16.2 Water pollution and its control
16.3 Agrochemicals and their effects
16.4 Solid waste management
16.5 Radioactive waste management
16.6 Greenhouse effect
16.7 Climate change
16.8 Impact and mitigation
16.9 Ozone layer depletion
16.10 Deforestation
16.11 Case study exemplifying success
16.12 Story addressing the environmental issue(s)