Revision Notes for CBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 28 – Free PDF Download
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Social Science NCERT Solutions for Class 8
|Chapter Name||Human Resources|
|Subject||Geography Revision Notes|
Quick Revision Notes
- People are a nation’s greatest resource. It is people with their skills and abilities that turn them into ‘resource’. Hence, human resource is ultimate resource.
- Healthy, educated and motivated people develop resources are per their requirements.
- Like other resources, human resources are not equally distributed over the world.
- Human resource is one of the building block for a nation’s development.
- More the population of a country has more it is considered to be rich in human resource.
Distribution of Population:
- The pattern of population distribution refers to the way in which people are spread across the earth surface.
- The distribution of population in the world is extremely uneven.
- Some areas are sparsely populated and some areas are densely populated due to relief features climate conditions, etc.
- Many more people live north of the Equator than south of the equator and almost three-quarters of the world’s people live in the continents of Asia and Africa.
- population in countries :China> India> USA > Indoneshia > Brazil
- Most of the population concentrates in the tropical region of the world as this region is rich in resources.
Density of Population:
- The number of the people living in a unit area of the earth’s surface is called population density.
- The average density of population in the whole world is 51 person per square km.
- South Central Asia has the highest density of population followed by East and South East Asia.
- Indonesia is the most dense nation of the world.
- Density of India is 382 persons per sq km, which is one of the highest in the world.
Factor Affecting Distribution of Population:
- People refers to live on plains because these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities.
- Climate: People prefer to live in moderate climate. They avoid extreme climates that are very hot or very cold.
- Soil: Fertile soil provides suitable land for agriculture. These areas are densely populated.
- Water: People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available.
- Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated.
- Topography: Most of the population resides in plain areas as it provide better condition to live and employment as well.
Social, Cultural and Economic Factors:
- Areas of better housing, education, health facilities are more densely populated.
- Places with religious or cultural significance attract people.
- Industrial areas provide employment opportunities. Large number of people are attracted to these areas.
- Coutries which are politically stable give better living conditions to people.
- The change in the number of people during a specific time is called population change.
- Population change is due to changes in the number of births and deaths and migration.
- Natural growth rate refers to the difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country.
- Advancement in food supplies, better medicines led to reduced death and birth rate remained intact. this gave rise to increase in population.
- Birth/Death rate : the number of live birth/Death per 1000 people.
- Migration: movement of people in and out of an area.
- Life expectancy: Number of years that an average person live.
Pattern of Population Change:
- Rates of population growth vary across the world.
- The world’d total population, however, not all countries are experiencing this growth.
- There is no relation between the economic status and population of a country.
- Developing and underdeveloped countries shows more population birth rate parameters.
- The present population of the world is 7.6 billiion and by it is expected to be rise by 9.6 billion by 2045.
- By 2020 India is expected to surpass the population of China.
- Population composition is the structure of the population with various aspects such as sex, age, literacy level, health condition, occupation and income level.
- The population composition of a country is described as population pyramid, which also called an age-sex pyramid.
- The total population is divided into various groups: 5-9 years, 10-14 years.
- The percentage of the total population is subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.
- The shape of population pyramid, shows the people living in that particular country.
- The number of children (below 15 years) are shown at the bottom and reflect the level of births. The size of the top shows the number of aged people (above 65 years) and reflects the number of deaths.
- The population pyramid shows yound dependents (aged below 15 years) and elderly dependents (aged over 65 years). The working people are in the middle group constitute the economically active segment.
- Different countries show different patterns of population pyramids.
- In Japan, low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base. Decreased death rates allow numbers of people to reach old age.
- India shows the birth pyramid which is broad at the base and thick in middle and tapper towards end. it means India has a healthy population at middle age which shows the availability of human resource.
- Least developed countries pyramids are broad at base but starts tappering in the middle which shows higher death rate.