NCERT Solutions Class 10 History chapter 2 The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China – Free PDF Download
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|Chapter Name||The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China|
|Subject||History Social Science NCERT Solutions|
1. Write a note on:
a) What was meant by the ‘civilising mission’ of the colonisers?
b) Huynh Phu So
- The European countries acquired colonies in the East Asian countries to exploit their natural resources.
- French colonisation was not only based on economic exploitation, but it was also driven by the idea of civilizing mission.
- But they were also driven by the idea of a ‘civilizing mission’.They had a firm belief that Europe is the most advanced civilizations and her colonies are backward.
- Like the British in India, the French thought it was the mission of the advanced European countries to bring the benefits of civilization to backward people.
- They considered that it was their duty to bring modern ideas into their colonies even at the cost of destroying the local culture, beliefs, etc.
(b) Huynh Phu So: Huynh Phu So was the founder of a nationalist movement called Hoa Hao. His simplified teachings were designed to appeal primarily to the poor and the peasants. He attempted to win supporters by cutting down on ceremonies and complex doctrines, eschewing the use of temples. He performed miracles and helped the poor. His criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. The French tried to suppress the movement inspired by Huynh Phu So. They declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze, and put him in a mental asylum. But the doctor, who had to prove him mad, became his follower. Finally, even the French doctors declared him sane. But French exiled him to Laos and many of his followers were sent to concentration camps.
Question 2. Explain the following:
(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
(b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong Delta.
(c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled.
(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.
- Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations because the French colonial administration followed a deliberate policy of failing students in their final year examinations so that they could not qualify for better-paid jobs.
- Only the wealthy Vietnamese elite could afford enrollment in these expensive schools, and to add to that, very few would pass the school-leaving examinations.
- Usually, two-thirds of the students failed. In 1925 in a population of 17 million, less than 400 passed the examinations.
- The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong Delta to increase cultivation.
- A vast system of canals and earthworks was built mainly with forced labour. It was actually an economic idea meant to increase rice production and subsequent export of rice to the international market.
- The area under rice cultivation went up from 274,000 hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930.
- Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
- In 1926, Saigon Native Girls School witnessed a major protest.
- A Vietnamese girl sitting on front benches was told to vacate her seat for a French student. But she refused.
- The French principal of the school expelled her but other students supported her they too were expelled.
- It resulted in a widespread demonstration. Considering the gravity of the situation, the government decided to control the intensity of the protests by providing an outlet-making the school take back the students. The principal reluctantly agreed but warned the students.
- French rebuilt Hanoi to make it the modern city on French lines. The latest ideas about architecture and modern engineering skills were employed to build a new and modern city.
- The French part of Hanoi was beautiful and clean whereas the native quarter was not provided with any modern facilities.
- In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague.
- Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi because the modern and apparently hygienic sewage system provided ideal breeding grounds for rodents apart from being a good transport system allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem. And rats began to enter the well cared for homes of the French through the sewage pipes.
- Sewage from the old city was drained out into the river or overflowed in the streets during heavy rains. The large sewers now became a protected breeding and living space for rats. Hanoi, despite its “modernity”, became the chief cause of the plague in 1903.
Question 3. Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent is it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam?
- Like other colonizers, the French also thought that they were on a civilizing mission. Thus the Tonkin Free School was opened to give Western education. The school taught science, hygiene and French, other than the common subjects. For these three subjects, the students had to attend evening classes and also pay separately. The school encouraged adoption of western style.
- To be modern the Vietnamese had also to look modern.
- The students were not only made to attend these classes but they were asked to sport modern looks too. A typical example of this was that Vietnamese were asked to cut off their long hair which they kept traditionally and adopt a short haircut which was absolutely against their culture.
Question 4. What was Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau?
- Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam was to make it a democratic republic. He was intensely hostile to the monarchy and opposed to the idea of resisting French with the help of the court.
- He accused the French of not following their own national ideals and demanded the setting up of legal and educational institutions alongside the development of agriculture and industries.
- Profoundly influenced by the democratic ideals of the West ,he did not want a wholesale rejection of Western civilization.
Question 1. With reference to what you have read in this chapter, discuss the influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life.
- The influence of China on Vietnam’s culture and life was multifarious before the French colonized Vietnam. Different groups lived under the shadow of the powerful Chinese empire.
- Even when the latter gained independence in 1945, the rulers maintained the use of Chinese governance systems and culture. The elites were vastly influenced by Chinese culture and life, as has been elucidated in Phan Boi Chau’s book “The History of the Loss of Vietnam”.
- Chinese mannerism and styles became widely (and in some cases enthusiastically) adopted. China was a cultural epicenter of East Asia, so many Vietnamese people were already excited to try Chinese things. Plus, as the Chinese came in, they brought with them the most advanced architectural and building technologies in that part of the world.
- Chinese language and Confucianism were followed by the upper classes in Vietnam. In 1911, when the Chinese Republic was set up, Vietnamese students followed suit in organizing the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam. Vietnamese men also kept their hair long – a Chinese tradition.
Question 2. What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam?
- Religion had always played a pivotal role in the lives of people in Vietnam. It helped Vietnamese to unite against colonial control.
- Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mix of Buddhism, Confucianism, and local customs. Christianity looked down upon their reverence for the supernatural.
- In 1868, the Scholars’ Revolt protested against the tyrannical spread of Christianity, and though the movement was defeated, it inspired others to follow suit. They led a general uprising in the provinces of Ngu An and Ha Tien where a thousand Catholics were killed.
- The Hoa Hao movement in 1939 drew upon popular religious ideas of the nineteenth century, and its leader Huynh Phu So was a famous entity.
- These groups were not in tandem with political parties which tended to look down upon their activities with discomfort.
- Movements like this always had a contradictory relationship with mainstream nationalism. Political parties often drew upon their support but were uneasy about their activities. Nevertheless, religious movements were successful in arousing anti-imperialist tendencies in the Vietnamese people.
Question 3. Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself?
- The US got involved in the war in Vietnam because it feared that a communist government would come into power in Vietnam after the National Liberation Front formed a coalition with having Ho Chi Minh government in the north against Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime. US policy-planners also feared a spread of communism to other countries in that area.
- The war did cost a lot to both Vietnam and America. Although America had the latest technology and lethal weapons, American casualties were very high. It resulted widespread of public dissent within the US.
- Only university graduates got an exemption from compulsory service in the army and this caused even more anger among the minorities and working-class families.
- Most of the people in America were critical of the government getting involved in the war. The war led to moral confusion in the US.
Question 4. Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of
(a) a porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail.
(b) a woman soldier.
Answer a) From 1965 to 1972, the US-Vietnam War continued and caused losses to both the US and Vietnam.
- The Vietnamese people had to suffer human and property losses yet they never stopped their struggle for freedom. Here it is important to mention the role played by the porters in getting freedom and unity of Vietnam.
- As a porter I set out without fear of the Ho Chi Minh Trail which was a great expansive network of roads and footpaths. We the heroic porters carried as much as 25 kg to 70 kg of weight on their backs or bicycles. We did not fear that we might fall over in the deep valleys. We bravely walked on the narrow, dangerous roads that marked the treacherous routes. We also did not feel afraid of being shot down by aircraft guns. We put all their fears aside and walked on to maintain the supply line. This fact showed that the porters were heroic and patriotic.
b) The Vietnamese women played an important role in the US-Vietnam War.
- We were both warriors and workers. As warriors and soldiers, we Vietnamese women constructed six airstrips, they neutralized thousands of bombs and went on to shoot down fifteen planes.
- There were 1.5 million Vietnamese women in the regular army, the militia, the local forces, and professional teams. We were also engaged as porters, nurses and construction workers.
- Between 1965 to 1975, 80 % of the total 17000 youth were the women.
Question 5. What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the nationalist struggle in India.
- Women played a crucial role in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam. Women who rebelled against social conventions were idealized and rebel women of the past were likewise celebrated. Trieu Au was a popular figure in nationalist tales. In the 1960s, women were represented as brave soldiers and workers.
- They assisted in nursing wounded soldiers, constructing underground tunnels and fighting the enemy. Interestingly between 1965 and 1975, 70-80% of the youth working on the Ho Chi Minh trail were mostly women.
- As compared to the direct and active participation of Vietnamese women in the anti-imperial struggle, in India women did not play a very dynamic role in the nationalist struggle of India against Great Britain.
- They followed Gandhian ideals of boycotting foreign goods and picketing liquor shops but mainstream politics was controlled by men; although women like Sarojini Naidu, Kamla Nehru, and Kasturba Gandhi were actively involved. Indian women had symbolic representation in the freedom struggle in general. But some women leaders made a great impact on society.