NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part A – Contemporary World Politics Chapter 6 International Organisations – Free PDF download
|Chapter Name||International Organisations|
|Subject||Political Science NCERT Solutions|
|Part||Part 1 : Contemporary World Politics|
|Board||CBSE / State Boards|
|Category||CBSE NCERT Solutions|
CBSE Class 12 Political Science
Part 1 – Contemporary World Politics
Chapter 6 International Organisations
Q 1. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power:
- Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.
- It’s a kind of negative power.
- The Secretary-General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
- One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.
Q 2. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions:
- All security and peace-related issues are dealt with in the Security Council.
- Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.
- Having consensus among five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.
- The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialised agencies of the UN.
Q 3. Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?
- Nuclear capability
- It has been a member of the UN since its inception
- It is located in Asia.
- India’s growing economic power and a stable political system.
Ans. d. India’s growing economic power and a stable political system.
Q 4. The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:
- The UN Committee on Disarmament
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- UN International Safeguard Committee
- None of the above.
Ans. b. International Atomic Energy Agency
Q 5. WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations:
- General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
- General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
- World Health Organisation
- UN Development Programme
Ans. a. General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
Q 6. Fill in the blanks:
- The prime objective of UN is ……..
- The highest functionary of the UN is Called ….…..
- The UN Security Council has ……………. permanent and ………. non-permanent members.
- ………… is the present UN Secretary General.
- to maintain peace and security
- António Guterres (9th Secretary General)
Q 7. Match the principal agencies of the UN with their functions:
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice
- International Atomic Energy Agency.
- Security Council
- UN High Commission for Refugees
- World Trade Organisation
- International Monetary Fund
- General Assembly
- World Health Organisation
- Oversees the global financial system.
- Reservation of international peace and security.
- Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
- Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
- Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
- Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
- Debates and discusses global issues.
- Administration and coordination of UN affairs.
- Providing good health for all.
- Facilitates free trade among member countries.
- Economic and Social Council- (c) Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
- International Court of Justice-(e) Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
- International Atomic Energy Agency- (d) Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology
- Security Council- (b) Reservation of international peace and security
- UN High Commission for Refugees- (f) Provides shelter and medical help during emergencies.
- World Trade Organisations- (j) Facilitates free trade among member countries.
- International Monetary Funds- (a) Overseas the global financial system.
- General Assembly- (g) Debated and discusses global issues.
- World Health Organisation- (i) Providing good health for all.
- Secretariat- (h) Administration and coordination of UN affairs.
Q 8. What are the functions of the Security Council?
Ans. The main functions of the Security Council are:
- The preservation of International peace and security.
- The council can investigate disputes and recommends means of settling them peacefully.
- The Security Council can take military action if required.
- Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
- It can apply an economic sanction to stop any aggression.
Q 9. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council? Justify your proposal.
Ans. India must be a permanent member of the Security Council for the following reasons:
- India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one-fifth of the world population.
- India is also the world’s largest democracy.
- India has participated in virtually all of the initiatives of the UN.
- Its role in the UN’s peacekeeping efforts is significant.
- India’s economic emergence on the world stage is another factor that perhaps justifies its claim.
- India has also made regular financial contributions to the UN and never faltered on its payments.
Q 10. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.
Ans. It is felt that the suggested reforms had some advantages as well as disadvantages. Many countries could see that the criteria were problematic in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN. The following were the questions that arise:
- How big an economic or military power did you have to be to qualify for Security Council membership?
- What level of budget contribution would enable a state to buy its way into the Council?
- Was a big population an asset or a liability for a country trying to play a bigger role in the world?
- If respect for democracy and human rights was the criteria, countries with excellent records would be in line to be members but would they be effective as Council members?
- How was the matter of representation to be resolved?
- Did equitable representation in geographical terms mean that there should be one seat each from Asia, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean?
- Should the representation, on the other hand, be by regions or sub-regions (rather than continents)?
- Why should the issue of equitable representation be decided by geography and not by levels of economic development?
- Why not give more seats to members of the developing world?
- Should different cultures or ‘civilisations’ be given representation in a more balanced way?
- How does one divide the world by civilisations or cultures given that nations have so many cultural streams within their borders?
- A related issue was to change the nature of membership altogether. Some insisted, for instance, that the veto power of the five permanent members be abolished. Many perceived the veto to be in conflict with the concept of democracy and sovereign equality in the UN and thought that the veto was no longer right or relevant.
Q 11. Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its continuation. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?
Ans. The following facts make the UN an indispensable organisation:
- The UN can and has served to bring the US and the rest of the world into discussions over various issues.
- The UN has brought together over 190 nation in dealing with conflicts and social and economic development.
- The UN provides an arena in which it is possible to modify US attitudes and policies.
- The UN is an imperfect body, but without it, the world would be worse off.
- Given the growing connections and links between societies and issues—what we often call ‘interdependence’—it is hard to imagine how more than seven billion people would live together without an organisation such as the UN.
- Technology promises to increase planetary interdependence, and therefore the importance of the UN will only increase.
- Peoples and governments will have to find ways of supporting and using the UN and other international organisations in ways that are consistent with their own interests and the interests of the international community more broadly.
- To enforce cooperation on the issues of poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, crime rate etc.
Hence, though the UN has failed in preventing related wars and miseries, despite the nations require its continuation due to above-mentioned reasons to promote international Peace and understanding.
Q 12 “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council”. Do you agree with this Statement? Give arguments for or against this position.
Ans. It is true that reforming the UN means restructuring the Security Council. The following arguments can be put forth in favour of it:
- Security Council plays a crucial role in the functioning of the UN. Hence, if the UN needs reforming than restructuring the Security Council is equally important.
- In today’s scenario, power equations have been changed with the disintegration of USSR and many new countries are entering into the UN
- The UN charter has given a privileged position to permanent members to bring stability all over the world. This position remains the same and no one is allowed to enter.
- Except permanent members enjoy veto power to be placed in a valuable position.
- Permanent members category is from an industrialised developed country which should be balanced by enhancing representation from developing countries to become either permanent or non-permanent members.