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CBSE Class 12 Political Science Important Questions
Chapter 13 India’s External Relations
1 Mark Questions
Which two objectives Jawaharlal Nehru wished to achieve through the strategy of non-alignment? (Delhi 2016)
Two objectives are as follows :
- To preserve sovereignty and territorial integrity of the nation.
- To promote economy development.
During Nehru era, why did some political parties and groups in our country believe that India should be more friendly with the bloc led by the US? (HOTS: All India 2016)
Political parties and groups in our country believed that India should be more friendly with the bloc led by the US because the bloc claimed to be pro-democracy.
What is meant by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? (Delhi 2010)
It is an international organisation to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to prevent its use for military purposes.
Choose the correct answer. Indian foreign policy is affected by
(i) cultural factors
(ii) domestic factors
(iii) international factors
(iv) domestic and international factors (All India 2009)
(iv) Indian foreign policy is affected by domestic and international factors.
What is the meaning of Panchsheel? (All India 2009)
Panchsheel refers to the five principles of peaceful co-existence, signed between India and China in 1954.
When was the first nuclear explosion undertaken by India? (All India 2009)
In May 1974 the first nuclear explosion was undertaken by India.
Mention any two principles of India’s foreign policy. (All India 2009)
The two principles of India’s foreign policy are :
2 Mark Questions
How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition? (Delhi 2015)
The increasing Sino-Indian rift even had its effect on opposition. This and the developing rift between China and the USSR led to irreconcilable differences within the Communist Party of India (CPI). In 1964, CPI spilt.
The pro-USSR faction remained close to the Congress and CPI(M) was against any ties with the Congress because they were closer to China. During the war against China, many leaders of CPI(M) were arrested for being pro-China.
Suggest any two measures to have good relations with Pakistan. (All India 2015)
Two measures to have good relations with Pakistan are as follows:
- Economic relations should be consolidated.
- Cultural give and take relationship should be appreciated.
Which two differences between India and China led to an army conflict in 1962? (HOTS; Delhi 2014)
Two differences between India and China which led to an army conflict in 1962 are ;
- India gave political asylum (refuge) to the Tibetan leader Dalai Lama.
- China’s help to Pakistan against India.
Highlight the contribution made by Jawaharlal Nehru to the foreign policy of India, (All India 2014)
Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister and Foreign Minister for nearly two decades played a key role in shaping India’s foreign policy based on principles of peace, freedom and prosperity.
He focussed on:
- Policy of non-alignment
- India’s role in commonwealth
- Tackling issues of Kashmir, Tibet, China.
- Maintaining relations with Pakistan, US and USSR.
Before 1971, which two reasons were a source of resentment among the people of Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan? (Delhi 2013)
The two reasons are as follows :
- Internal disturbance in both East and West Pakistan.
- Protest of people of East Pakistan for the government based in West Pakistan.
When and why was the Communist Party of India (CPI) divided into two factions? (Delhi 2012)
Why did the Communist Party of India split in 1964? (HOTS; Delhi 2011)
In 1964 the Communist Party of India (CPI) was divided into two factions because pro-USSR faction remained close to the Congress and CPI (M) was against any ties with the Congress because they were closer to China.
Who signed the Tashkent Agreement and when? (Delhi 2012)
Tashkent Agreement was signed between Lai BAlladur Shastri (Prime Minister of India) and General Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) in 1966.
When and between whom was the Shimla Agreement signed? (All India 2012)
Shimla Agreement was signed between Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 3rd July, 1972.
Enumerate any two principles of Nehru’s Foreign Policy. (Delhi 2011)
The two principles of India’s foreign policy are as follows :
- Non-alignment It means not to join any power blocks namely the US and the USSR. It is a positive policy which aims at pursuing national interest and establishing an egalitarian world order based on equality and mutual respect.
- Panchsheel It refers to five principles of peaceful co-existence. This was signed between India and China in 29th April, 1954.
Why did India decide to go nuclear? (All India 2011)
India decided to go nuclear because :
- It wanted peaceful self-defence.
- It looked for alternative energy resources.
What does Panchsheel imply? (All India 2011)
The Panchsheel agreement was signed by Zhou Enlai (Prime Minister of China) and Indian counterpart Pandit Nehru in 1954.
This agreement stated the five principles as:
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression.
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s integrity and sovereignty.
- Equality and cooperation for benefit.
- Peaceful co-existence.
List any two problems faced by the Government of India after 1971-72. (Delhi 2010)
Two problems faced by India after 1971-72 are :
- There was heavy strain on India’s economy due to illegal migration from Bangladesh.
- In the international market, oil prices increased and prices of essential commodities increased unexpectedly.
What was Shimla Agreement? Name its signatories. (Delhi 2010)
Shimla Agreement is the agreement signed between India and Pakistan to stop war between the two countries in 1972. Its main signatories were Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
Mention the causes Kargil Conflict.’ (Delhi 2009)
Causes of Kargil Conflict are :
- In 1999, Pakistan army occupied Indian posts in Kargil.
- Mashkoh, Dras, Kaskshar and Batalik areas were occupied by MujAllideens.
Why did Dalai Lama seek refuge in India? (Delhi 2009)
When China annexed Tibet and tried to suppress its culture, the Tibetans rebelled. In return, Chinese forces crushed this rebellion, which worsened the situation. This led Dalai Lama’s flee to India and seek refuge.
State any two directive principles of state policy relating to foreign affairs policy. (Delhi 2008; All India 2008)
The two directive principles of State Policy relating to foreign affairs:
- Promotion of international peace and security.
- Maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
How did the plateau of Tibet become an issue of tension between India and China? (HOTS; Delhi 2008,-All India 2008)
According to Panchsheel agreement, India conceded China’s claim over Tibet. China assured India that it will provide full autonomy. But these issues of Tibet led to war between China and India.
Thus, the plateau of Tibet become an issue of tension between India and China.
What was the purpose of the Bandung Conference? (All India 2008)
The Bandung Conference of 1955 marked the Zenith of India’s engagement with the newly independent Asian and African nations. The Bandung conference later led to the establishment of the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM).
4 Mark Questions
Do you agree with the statement that “the foreign policy of independent India has pursued the dream of a peaceful world?” Support your answer with any three suitable arguments. (HOTS; All India 2017)
Describe any two major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy. (Delhi 2015)
Mention the objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy. What was the strategy through which he wanted to achieve them? (Delhi 2012)
Yes, we agree that the foreign policy of independent India has pursued the dream of a peaceful world. Nehru was Prime Minister as well as Foreign Minister for two decades after the independence. He was the main architect of the foreign policy of India.
The two objectives of Nehru’s policy were ;
- India should follow its own course in world affairs.
- India should not allow her to be used by any other powerful country.
Strategy of Nehru
- Policy of NAM Nehru was the main founder of Non-Alignment Movement, he emphasised that to be separate from the two-bloc of powerful states and developed the peace and disarmament.
- Policy towards Afro-Asian Countries Nehru always supported the freedom movement of African and Asian countries. He organised Asian Relations Conference held in New Delhi on the 23rd March 1947. He participated in the Asian-African Conference at Bandung in 1955.
Foreign policy during the time of Shastri, Indira Gandhi and Morarji Desai India faced war between the period of Shastri and Mrs Gandhi era. Both maintained the integrity and sovereignty of the country. The foreign policy of both was focusing on the peace and prosperous development of India as well as neighbouring states. They both were favouring the concept of Nehru’s Non-Aligned movement and made good relations with Asian and African countries. In the era of Morarji Desai when Janta Party came into power. In 1977 its focus on the NAM and followed the rules and regulation of NAM and its foreign policy was shifted towards pro-USSR.
Explain the role played by India in maintaining Afro-Asian Unity. (All India 2015)
Afro-Asian unity with India can be understood by following ways :
- Due to India’s size, location and power potential, Nehru dreamt of major role for India world affairs, specially in Asia.
- Under Nehru’s leadership, India made contact with other newly emerged Independent nations of Asia and Africa.
- During the 1940s and 1950s, Nehru advocated with great enthusiasm to support the Asian unit /. Under his leadership, India hosted the Asian relations conference in March 1947, five months before Ind a’s independence.
- India even made efforts to support the liberation movement of Indonesia to free it from the clutches of Dutch colonial rule by convening an international conference in 1949.
- Afro-Asian meeting held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955 commonly known as the Bandung Conference. It was a watershed in India’s engagement with the newly liberated nations of Asia and Africa.
Explain the circumstances that forced the Tibetans to leave China. Highlight India’s role in helping the Tibetan refugees, All India 2015
What was the Tibet issue? How did it cause tension between India and China? Explain. (Delhi 2012)
What was the Tibet issue? How did India help the Tibetan migrants to settle down? (All India 2012)
China administrated Tibet, since older time and wanted to control all its parts which China did it in 1950. Tibet was good friend of India since history therefore India insisted China to give independence to Tibet. According to Panchsheel agreement, India conceded China’s claim over Tibet. China assured India that it will provide full autonomy. But these issues of Tibet led to war between China and India.
India helps the Tibetan migrants to settle down in the following way :
- Spritual leader of Tibet Dalai Lama given refuge in 1959.
- Large number of Tibetans were also given refuge in Delhi and other parts of country.
- Dharmashala in Himachal Pradesh is the largest refugee settlement of Tibetans in India.
These situations lead to China-invasion of India in 1962.
Explain any two points of conflict between India and Bangladesh. (Delhi 2014)
Explain any two reasons for the popular struggle in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan during 1971. (Delhi 2014)
Describe any two major issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to the war of 1971. (Delhi 2013)
Describe any four consequences of the Bangladesh War of 1971. (All India 2011)
Reasons for 1971 war/conflict are following:
- In 1970, Pakistan had to face its biggest internal disturbance. The first General Elections of Pakistan constructed a rift between West Pakistan and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s party won all the seats in West Pakistan but he lost in East Pakistan. In East Pakistan, Sheikh Mujibur Allman’s Party Awami League Swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali people of East Pakistan had voted to protest against being treated as second class citizens over years by the government based in West Pakistan.
- The Pakistani Government was not ready to accept this democratic judgement nor even they accepted the Awami League’s demand for a federation. In 1971, Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Allman and unleashed a reign of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear 80 Lakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
Thus, full-scale war broke out between India and Pakistan in 1971, when Pakistan attacked on Punjab and Rajasthan.
Consequences of Bangladesh War of 1971 are :
- A great victory in the war resulted in national jubiliation. Many people in India looked it as a moment of glory and a clear sign of India’s power in military.
- Indira Gandhi won the Lok Sabha election and her personal popularity rose high after 1971 war. Congress Party even won almost all states assembly elections.
- India’s foreign policy reflected her desire to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971.
- Bangladesh emerged as a separate nation on the world map.
Explain India’s nuclear policy. (All India 2014, 2013)
Describe the nuclear policy of India. (Delhi 2013)
Explain any two features of Indian nuclear policy. (All India 2012)
Highlight the developments in India’s nuclear programme. (Delhi 2011)
Explain briefly India’s nuclear policy. (Delhi 2008: All India 2008)
India’s nuclear policy is discussed below :
Nehru always believed in scientific and technological development for fast development of India. An important idea of his industrialisation, was starting of nuclear programme under the guidance of Homi J Bhabha in late 1940s.
Nehru was against the nuclear weapon so he emphasised on generating atomic energy only for peaceful purposes. So, he requested Super powers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. Even though the nuclear war heads kept rising.
When Communist China tested its nuclear weapons in October 1964, five countries having nuclear weapon, US, USSR, UK, France and China (Taiwan was the integral part of China) and also the five permanent members of the UN Security Council tried to levy the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world.
During the decade of 1962-1972, when India faced three consecutive wars, many different parties came to the power from time to time, foreign policy of the country played only a limited role in party politics.
Indian Nuclear Programme India is against the international treaties which aimed at non-proliferation as the five nuclear states are not restricted from proliferating nuclear weapons. In 1974, the first nuclear explosion was undertaken by India. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT) also denies right to peaceful nuclear explosions by non-nuclear states.
Thus, India opposed the NPT in 1995 and also denied to sign Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
India carried out series of nuclear tests in May 1998, showing its capability to use nuclear energy for military purposes. Pakistan followed soon by increasing area’s vulnerability to nuclear exchange. The international committee criticised the nuclear test in Indian subcontinent and wanted to impose ban over India and Pakistan. But it was subsequently rejected.
The two features of India’s nuclear policy are :
- India’s nuclear policy dependable on minimum nuclear deterrence proclaims ‘no first use’.
- This policy reaffirms India’s commitment to global, valid and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament guiding to a nuclear weapon free world.
List any four ‘Directive Principles of State Policy’ given in the Constitution of India for the promotion of international peace and security. (Delhi 2013)
Explain any four Directive Principles of State Policy related to the promotion of international peace and security. (All India 2010)
Explain any two Directive Principles of State Policy provided in the Constitution of India relating to foreign policy. (All India (C) 2008)
The makers of Constitution of India equally emphasised on India’s foreign policy and international affairs. So the makers of Constitution laid these concern in the Directive Principles of the State Policy.
The Constitutional Principles Article 51 of the Indian Constitution lays down some directive Principles of State Policy on ‘promotion of international peace and security.
The state shall endeavour to:
- Promote international peace and security.
- Maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
- Foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.
- Encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
What was Bandung Conference? Describe its outcomes, (All India 2009)
In April 1955, representatives from twenty-nine governments of Asian and African nations gathered in Bandung, Indonesia to discuss peace and the role of the Third world in the Cold War, economic development and decolonisation.
The core principles of the Bandung Conference were :
- Political self-determination
- Non-interference in internal affairs
- Mutual respect for sovereignty,
- Non-aggression, and
The governments of Burma, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka co-sponsored the Bandung Conference and they brought together an additional twenty-four nations from Asia, Africa and the middle East.
The outcomes of the conference were :
- India’s engagement with the newly independent Asian and African nations.
- The conference’s final resolution laid the foundation for the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) during the Cold War.
- Leaders of the developing countries banded together to avoid being forced to take sides in the Cold War contest. The initial motivation for the movement was the promotion of peace. In the 1970s it grew increasingly radical in its condemnation of the policies of the Cold War superpowers.
6 Marks Questions
Give any three suitable arguments in favour of “India being a staunch supporter of the dicolonisation process and in firm opposition to racism”. (All India 2017)
Yes, it is true that India is a staunch (firm) supporter of the decolonisation process and in firm opposition to racism. It can be defined by the following agruments :
1. The period of the India’s independence also witnessed the developments like, the establishment of the UN, the creation of nuclear weapons, the emergence of Communist China, and the beginning of decolonisation in the world.
2. It was also the period of emergence of two Super powers namely the US-led North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. Most of the countries of the world were joining the two camps.
But India did not join either of the two camps during the Cold War ear. Because India wanted to keep away from the military alliances led by US and Soviet Union against each other and it was also opposed to the colonisation.
3. India advocated non-alignment as the ideal foreign policy approach. This was a difficult balancing act and sometimes the balance did not appear perfect. In 1956 when Britain attacked Egypt over the Suez Canal issue, India led the world protest against this neo-colonial invasion.
But in the same year when the USSR invaded Hungary, India did not join its public condemnation. Despite such a situation, by and large India did take an independent stand on various international issues and could get aid and assistance from members of both the blocks.
4. Yet, given its size, location and power potential, Nehru envisaged a major role for India in world affairs and especially in Asian affairs. His era was marked by the establishment of contacts between India and other newly independent states in Asia and Africa. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Nehru had been an ardent advocate of Asian unity. Under his leadership, India convened the Asian Relations Conference in March 1947, five months Allead of attaining its indepedence.
5. India made earnest efforts for the early realisation of freedom of Indonesia from the Dutch colonial regime by convening an international conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle. India was a staunch supporter of the decolonisation process and firmly opposed racism.
Especially apartheid in South Africa. The Afro-Asian conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955. commonly known as the Bandung Conference, marked the Zenith of India’s engagement with the newly independent Asian and African nations. The Bandung Conference later led to the establishment of the NAM The First Summit of the NAM was held in Belgrade in September 1961. Nehru was a co-founder of the NAM.
Two developments strained this relationship. China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the Government of India did not oppose this openly. But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian Government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the Government of India was allowing anti-China activities to take place within India. All India 2011
Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions
(i) What is meant by historical buffer?
(ii) Why didn’t Government of India oppose the annexation of Tibet by China?
(iii) How far was it justified on the part of India to grant political asylum to the Dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetan refugees?
(i) A buffer is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers. Its existence can sometimes be though to prevent conflict between them.
The invasion of a buffer state by one of the powers surrounding it will often result in war between the powers.
(ii) In 1954, the ‘Panchsheel Agreement’ was signed between India and China for stronger relationship between the two countries.
Through one of its clauses about respecting each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, India conceded China’s claim over Tibet. China had assured India that Tibet will be given greater autonomy than enjoyed by any other region in China.
(iii) In 1958, there was armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation. This was suppressed by the Chinese forces. But more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian Government grew uneasy.
Consequently, the Tibetan Spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, Sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959, along with thousands of Tibetan refugees. Thus, it was justified on the humanitarian ground on the part of India to grant political asylum to the Dalai Lama and Tibetan refugees.
Value Based Questions
Suppose you are looking after the foreign policy of India which four values will you like to integrate into the foreign policy. (Delhi 2014)
Assess any four principles of India’s foreign policy, (All India 2000)
As a Foreign Minister, I would like to integrate the following four values/principles into India’s foreign policy :
1. Non-Alignment It means not to join any of the power blocks or enter into military alliance, having an independent foreign policy and working for peaceful co-existence. Non-Alignment stands for disarmament, development, decolonisation, democratisation of international organisations, North-South dialogue, NIEO, protection of the environment, etc.
2. Panchsheel It is a guidline in our relation with other countries that was signed between India and China in 1954.
Its five principles are :
- Respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Mutual non-aggression
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Equality and mutual benefit.
- Peaceful co-existence.
3. Opposition to Colonialism Since we have been the victims of colonial rule and exploitation we stand for the right of self-determination and anti-imperialism. We supported the cause of freedom of the colonies of Africa and Asia, as colonialism is a violation of Fundamental Human Rights, India cooperated with Indonesia in its efforts for freedom and also supported the freedom struggles in Malaya, Algeria, Tunisia and Namibia etc. India’s concern for Bangladesh and of Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait reflects our opposition to colonialism.
4. Disarmament means cutting down on production of arms and their stockpiles so as to make the world a more secure place to live in. An arms race leads to wasteful expenditure, mutually assured destruction, environmental pollution and an unbalanced economy. The same money could be used for welfare and constructive purposes. We signed the chemical weapons ban treaty and also supported disarmament talks like SALT-I, SALT-II, START-I, etc.