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CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Revision Notes for Tools for financial statement analysis of Chapter 12

Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 12 – Free PDF Download

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Class 12 Accountancy Quick Revision notes Chapter 12 Tools for financial statement analysis

The various tools used for analysis of financial statements are :
Comparative Statement: Financial Statements of two years are compared and changes in absolute terms and in percentage terms are calculated. It is a form of Horizontal Analysis.
Common Size statement: Figures of Financial statements are converted it to percentage with respect to some common base.
In Common size Income Statement Sales/Revenue from Operations is taken is common base where as in Common size Balance Sheet Total assets or Total Equity and Liabilities are taken as common base.
Ratio Analysis: It is a technique of Study of relationship between various items in the Financial Statements.There are mainly four types of ratios-
1) liquidity ratio
2) solvency ratio
3) activity ratio
4) profitability ratio
Cash Flow Statement : It is a statement that shows the inflow and outflow of cash and cash equivalents during a particular period which helps in finding out the causes of changes in cash position between the two balance sheet dates.It is prepared under accounting standard 3

Comparative Statements

It is a statement that shows changes in each item of the financial statement in absolute amount and in percentage, taking the amounts of the preceding as counting period as the base.
Types of Comparative Statements :
1. Comparative Balance Sheet; and
2. Comparative Statement of Profit and Loss.
Comparative Balance Sheet : It shows the increases and decreases in various items of assets, equity and liabilities in absolute term and in percentage term by taking the corresponding figures in the previous year’s balance sheet as a base.
Format for a Comparative Balance Sheet
Comparative Balance Sheet of ……… Ltd.
As at 31st March 2014 and 2015

Particulars2014Rs. 
(previous year)
2015Rs 
(current year).
Absolute Change
Rs.(current year- previous year)
Percentage Change
%
1. EQUITY AND LIABILITIES(1) Shareholders’ funds 
(a) Share capital
(b) Reserves and surplus
(2) Non-current Liabilities
(a) Long-term borrowings
(b) Other Long term liabilities
(c) Long-term provisions
(3) Current liabilities
(a) Short-term borrowings
(b) Trade payables
(c) Other Current liabilities
(d) Short-term provisions
Total
II. ASSETS(1) Non-current assets 
(a) Fixed assets
(b) Non-current investments
(c) Long-term loans and advances
(2) Current Assets
(a) Current investments
(b) Inventories
(c) Trade receivables
(d) Cash and cash equivalents
(e) Short term loans and advances
(f) Other current assets
Total

*Percentage change = absolute change/ previous year *100
for example –

paricularsnote no2016 (A)2017 (B)absolute changeC= B-ApercentageC/A*100
share holder fund50000030000020000040
current liabilities30000200001000050
total liabilities53000032000021000040.38
assets
fixed assets220000200000200009.09
current assets31000012000019000061.29
total assets53000032000021000040.38

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS/COMPARATIVE INCOME STATEMENT
Comparative Income Statement: It shows the increases and decreases in various items of income Statement in absolute amount and in percentage amount by taking the corresponding figures in the previous year’s Income Statement as a base.
Format for a Comparative Statement of Profit and Loss
Comparative Statement of Profit and Loss

For the years ended on 31st March, 2014 and 2015

Particulars2014Rs. 
(previous year)
2015Rs. 
(current year)
Absolute Change
Rs.(current year- previous year)
Percentage Change
%
I. Revenue form operationsII. Other Income 
III. Total Revenue (I+II)
IV. Expenses :
a.Cost of Material consumed
b.Purchases of Stock-in-Trade
c.Changes in Inventories of Finished Goods, Work-in-progress and Stock-in-trade
d.Employees Benefit Expenses
e.Finance Cost
f.Depreciation & Amortisation Expenses
g.Other Expenses
Total Expenses
V. Profit before Tax (III-IV)
Less : Income Tax
VII. Profit after Tax

percentage = absolutechange/ previous year*100
Importance of Comparative Statement
To make the data simple and more understandable.
To indicate the trend with respect to the previous year.
To compare the firm performance with the performance of other firm in the same business.

PARTICULARS2016(A)2017(B)ABSOLUTE CHANGE(B-A)PERCENTAGEC/A*100
revenue from operation10,00,00030,00,00020,00,000200
total income (A)10,00,00030,00,00020,00,000200
cost of production2,00,0003,00,0001,00,00050
other expenses1,00,0002,00,0001,00,000100
total expenses(B)3,00,0005,00,0002,00,00066.7
profit (A-B)7,00,00025,00,00018,00,000257.14
-TAX(1,00,000)(5,00,000)4,00,000400
PROFIT AFTER TAX6,00,00020,00,00014,00,000233.3

Common Size Statement
Common Size Financial Statements are the statements in which amounts of the various items of financial statements are converted into percentages to a common base.
Types of Common Size statements :
1. Common Size Balance sheet; and
2. Common Size Statement of Profit and Loss.
Common Size Balance sheet : It is a statement in which every item of assets, equity and liabilities is expressed as a percentage to the total of all assets or to the total of Equity and Liabilities.
Format for a Common Size Balance Sheet :
Common Size Balance Sheet of…………….Ltd.
As at 31st March, 2014 and 2015
note – all the items are divided by the total of balance sheet to calculate the percentage.

paricularsnote no2016 (A)2017 (B)PERCENTAGE 2016(divide by total 530000)percentage2017 
(divide by total 320000)
share holder fund50000030000094.393.75
current liabilities30000200005.76.25
total liabilities530000320000100100
assets
fixed assets22000020000041.5062.5
current assets31000012000058.4937.5
total assets530000320000100100

Common Size Income Statement or Statement of Profit and Loss: It is a statement in which every item of Statement of Profit and Loss is expressed as a percentage to the amount of Revenue from Operations.
Format for a Common Size Statement of Profit and Loss:
Common Size Statement of Profit and Loss
For the years ended on 31st March, 2014 and 2015

ParticularsAbsolute AmountsPercentage of Revenue from operation (Net Sales)
2014
Rs.
2015
Rs.
2014
Rs.
2015
Rs.
I. Revenue from operationsII. Add : Other Income 
III. Total Revenue (I+II)
IV. Expenses :
a. Cost of Material consumed
b. Purchases of Stock-in-Trade
c.Changes in Inventories of Finished Goods, Work-in-progress and Stock-in-trade
d. Employees Benefit Expenses
e. Finance Cost
f. Depreciation
g. Other Expenses
Total Expenses
V. Profit before Tax (III-IV)
Less : Income Tax
VII. Profit after Tax

note- all the items are divided by revenue from operations of that year to calculate the percentages.

PARTICULARS2016(A)2017(B)PERCENTAGE2016 
(divide by 10,00,000)
PERCENTAGE2017 
(divide by 30,00,000)
revenue from operation10,00,00030,00,000100100
total income (A)10,00,00030,00,000100100
cost of production2,00,0003,00,0002010
other expenses1,00,0002,00,000106.67
total expenses(B)3,00,0005,00,0003016.67
profit (A-B)7,00,00025,00,0007083.3
-TAX(1,00,000)(5,00,000)1016.67
PROFIT AFTER TAX6,00,00020,00,0006066.67