CBSE Class 10 Geography Revision Notes Agriculture
Agriculture is a primary activity which produces most of the food that we consume besides food grain it also produces raw material for various industries.Some agriculture product like tea, coffee, spice, etc…
Types of farming:
Cultivation method has changed significantly depending upon the characteristics of physical environmental, technological know – how and socio – culture practices. Farming various from subsistence to commercial type. At present in different parts of India.
Primitive Subsistence Farming:
This type of farming is still practiced in few pockets of India
- The help of primitive tools like hoe dao and digging sticks, and family /community labour.
- This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.
- It is ‘salsh and burn’ agriculture.
- The soil fertility decreases.
- The farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
Intensive Subsistence Farming:
- This type of farming is practiced is areas of high population pressure on land .
- It is labour intensive farming.
- The biological inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
- There is enormous pressure on agriculture land.
- This type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs.
- The degree of commercialization of agriculture various from one region to another.
- A single crop s grown on a large area.
- The help of migrant labourers.
- The produces is used as raw material in respective industries.
- These are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping pattern in the country.
- India has three cropping seasons – rabi, kharif and zaid.
- Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of the above-mentioned rabi crops.
- he crops produced during ‘zaid’ are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds. Cotton and jute, etc.,
Non – Food Crops:
- It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions.
- It requires moist nd humid climate with rainfall of more than 200cm. and temperature above 25℃
- Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
- Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.
- India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant.
- In 2008 India wass second largest producer of cotton after china.
- It is known as the golden fibre.
- It is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.
Technological and Institutional Reforms:
- The pace of agricultural development.
- Agriculture which provides a livelihood for more than 60 per cent.
- The government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural in the 1960s and 1970s
- The government also announces minimum support prices remunerative and procurement prices for important crops.
- Consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
- The green revolution based on the use of package technology and the white revolution (operation flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve a lot of Indian agriculture.
- Land reform was the main focus of our first five-year plan.
- Development in few selected areas. In the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which includes both institutional and technological reforms.
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease.
- Establishment of Grameen Banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
- Kisan credit cards and personal accident insurance schemes introduced.
- Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on radio and T.V.
- The government also announces minimum support price.
- Remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middleman.
Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output:
- Gross Domestic Product has registered a declining trend from 1951 onwards.
- The population continues to be as high as 63 per cent in 2001.
- The government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture in India.
- India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture Establishment of Indian Council of Agriculture.
- The growth rate in agriculture is decelerating which is an alarming situation.
- Agriculture backbone of Indian Economy.
- Share in the gross domestic product.
- Providing employment.
- Livelihood to the population.
- The government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture.
- Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, agricultural universities.
- Veterinary services and animal breeding centers.
- Horticulture development.
- Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast.
- The number of people who do not have food security is disproportionately large in some region of our country particularly in economically less developed states with the higher incidence of poverty.
- The focus of the policy is on fixing the support price for procurement of wheat and rice to maintain their stocks. Food Corporation of India.
- The FCI procures food grains from the farmers at the government announced minimum support price.
- The competition for land between non – agriculture uses such as housing etc.,
- The farmers are badly affected by the uncertainties of production and market.
- The higher the supply the lower is the demand.
Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture:
- Globalisation is not a new phenomenon.It was there at the time of colonisation.
- Till today it is one of the important items of export from India.
- Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished due to the availability of good quality cotton from India.
- The Champaran movement which started in 1917 in Bihar.
- Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmer in India have been exposed to new challenges.