CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Notes Chapter 12 Training in Sports and Sports is part of Class 12 Physical Education Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 12 Training in Sports.
Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 12 Training in Sports
Training is a process of preparing an individual for any event, activity or job. Usually in sports, we use the term sports training, which denotes the sense of preparing sports persons for the highest level of performance. According to Mathew (1981), “Sports training is the basic form of preparation of a sportsman.” Keeping in view the aim of sports training in competitive sports, the following objectives of sports training may be set to reach the aim
- Personality development
- Physical fitness and development
- Skill/Technique development
- Tactical development
- Mental Training
Strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force in single muscle contraction or it is the ability to overcome resistance. Strength is an essential component of physical fitness.
Types of strength are
- Maximum strength
- Explosive strength
- Strength endurance
- Static strength
Training Methods for Improving Strength
Training methods for improving strength are
(i) Isometric Exercises
An isometric contraction occurs when there is tension on a muscle but no movement is made, causing the length of the muscle to remain the same. These isometric exercises were first introduced by Hettinger and Muller (1953). Examples of these exercises are pressing or pushing a wall, lifting a very heavy weight, holding a static position, pulling the rope in tug-of-wall etc.
Advantages of isometric exercises are as follows
- Develops static strength.
- Need less time.
- Can be performed anywhere because no equipment is required.
Disadvantages of isometric exercises are as follows
- Muscles gain most strength at the angle used in exercise.
- Avoid if you have heart problems as they cause a rise in blood pressure due to a drop in blood flow to the muscle during the contraction.
- Develops dynamic strength.
(ii) Isotonic Exercises
Isotonic exercise is a form of exercise which involves controlled contraction and extension of muscles and mobilisation of the joints around those muscles. Examples include a push-up or squat. These were developed by De Loone (1954). Isotonic exercises are of two types
Advantages of isotonic exercises are as follows
- Strengthens the muscle throughout the range of motion.
- Can be adapted easily to suit different sports. Disadvantages of isotonic exercises are as follows
- Muscle soreness after exercise because of the high stress level.
- Muscles gain the dynamic strength when they are at their weakest point of action.
(iii) Isokinetic Exercises
Isokinetic exercises are performed on specially designed machines. These exercises were developed by Perrine in 1968.
In these exercises, there is movement along with continuous tension in both flexor and extensor muscles e.g. swimming, cycling etc.
Advantages of isokinetic exercises are as follows
- They develop a high level of dynamic as well as explosive strength.
- These are effective for almost every game.
Disadvantages of isokinetic exercises are as follows
- They require special types of equipment.
- They must be performed under observation of a coach.
Endurance is the ability to do sports movements with the desired quality and speed under conditions of fatigue.
Types of endurance are
- Aerobic Endurance Aerobic means ‘with oxygen’ During aerobic work, the body is working at a level that the demands for oxygen and fuel can be met by the body’s intake.
- Anaerobic Endurance During anaerobic (without oxygen) work involving maximum effort, the body is working so hard that the demands for oxygen and fuel exceed the rate of supply and the muscles have to rely on the stored reserves of fuel.
- Speed Endurance Speed endurance is used to develop the coordination of muscle contraction.
- Strength Endurance Strength endurance is used to develop the athlete’s capacity to maintain the quality of his muscles’ contractile force.
Advantages of endurance are as follows
- Needs only a small amount of easy to use, accessible equipment, if any.
- Good for aerobic fitness.
- Good for losing weight.
Disadvantages of endurance are as follows
- Can be boring.
- Does not improve anaerobic fitness, so it is not as good for team games like football or hockey which involve short bursts of speed.
Training Method for Endurance Development
Methods for endurance development are
- Continuous Training
- Interval Training
- Fartlek Training
Advantages of training method for endurance development are as follows
- It is good for increasing strength and cardio respiratory endurance.
- Several athletics can take part in the training programme at a time.
- It does not require any equipment and can be organised easily.
- This training method is not rigid; it is flexible in nature.
Disadvantages of training method for endurance development are as follows
- The trainee does very hard training which is sometimes difficult to see his/her efforts making.
- Sometimes the athlete is likely to drop efforts.
- As it is not pre-planned so it may cause accidents.
- An appropriate check on trainees cannot be maintained.
It is the ability to cover distance in minimum possible time or the ability to perform movement in the shortest possible time. It is the quickness of movement of body parts. Speed used in endurance is called speed endurance. It is the ability to do work faster.
Different types of speed are
- Maximum speed
- Explosive speed (power)
- Speed endurance
Training Methods for Speed Development
A speed development programme can be framed according to need, level and training state of the players.
- Acceleration Run Acceleration runs are usually adopted to develop speed specially in attaining maximum speed from a stationary position.
- Pace Races or Run Pace races mean running the whole distance of a race at a constant speed. In pace races, an athlete runs the race with uniform speed, generally 800 m and above.
Flexibility and Its Methods
Flexibility is . the ability to perform a joint action through a range of movements. It is needed to perform everyday, activities with relative ease. Flexibility tends to deteriorate with age. Without adequate flexibility, daily activities are more difficult to perform. Being flexible significantly reduces the chance of experiencing occasional and chronic back pain.
There are two types of flexibility
- Passive flexibility
- Active flexibility
Methods of flexibility development are as follows
- Ballistic Method It is the oldest form of doing stretching exercises. This method involves jerk in movement.
- Slow Stretching Method In this method the muscle or joint involved is stretched to the maximum possible limit using slow movement.
- Slow Stretching and Holding Method It is the extension of slow stretching method.
- Post-Isometric Stretching This method of-flexibility development is based on the principle of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.
Coordination is one of the main components of physical fitness. It is the ability to perform smooth and accurate movements involving different parts of the body. It requires good awareness of relative limb and body positions, and good integration between the senses and muscles involved in the movement.
Different types of coordinative abilities are
- Differentiation ability
- Orientation ability
- Coupling ability
- Reaction ability
- Balance ability
- Rhythm ability
- Adaptation ability
It is a form of body conditioning or resistance training using high intensity aerobics. It targets strength building and muscular endurance. Activities in circuit training are step ups, stomach crunch, squat ups, jogging, skipping etc.
Impact of circuit training are
- Get maximum result in minimum time.
- Increases rate of metabolism.
- Enhances cardiovascular fitness.
- Enhances muscle endurance.
- Helps in strength training.
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