NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 – Free PDF Download
Free PDF download of NCERT Solutions Social Science Class 8 Solutions Chapter 6 – Colonialism and the City solved by Expert Social Science Teachers on CoolGyan.Org. All Chapter 6 – Colonialism and the City Questions with Solutions for NCERT to help you to revise complete Syllabus and Score More marks.
Science Revision Notes for Class 8
|Chapter Name||When People Rebel|
|Subject||Social Science NCERT Solutions|
Q1. State whether true or false:
- In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation.
- Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
- In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.
- After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
- More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.
Ans : (a) True
Q2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the ______.
Ans : Jama Masjid.
(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were ___ and ____.
Ans : Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker.
(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as ________.
Ans : unhygienic and unhealthy, the source of disease.
(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the __________ was devised.
Ans : Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme
Q3. Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
|1.||Unwalled city, constructed on Raisina Hill, south of Shahjahanabad or Old Delhi.||Constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort-palace complex, with the river Yamuna flowing near it.|
|2.||There were broad and straight streets.||There were mazes of narrow and winding lanes and by lanes and quiet cul-de-sacs.|
|3.||Sprawling mansions set in the middle of large compounds.||Shahjahanabad was crowded with congested mohallas, and several dozen bazaars.|
|4.||New Delhi represented a sense of law and order.||There was chaos everywhere in Shahjahanabad|
Q4. Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?
Ans : The British lived in the ‘white’ areas in cities such as Madras.
Q5. What is meant by de-urbanisation?
- For the sake of convenience of trade,in the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power in the different regions of India.
- With time, these cities lost their importance. Simultaneously, many towns manufacturing specialized goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced.
- Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is known as de-urbanisation.
- Cities such as Machlipatnam, Surat and Seringapatam were de-urbanised during the nineteenth century. Only 11% of Indians were living in cities by the early twentieth century
Q6. Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
Ans: Though Calcutta was the capital of the British, they were aware of the symbolic and cultural importance of Delhi.
- It was the city where the Mughals had ruled for several years.
- It was the same city that had become the rebel stronghold in the rebellion of 1857, a rebellion that had momentarily threatened the collapse of the British rule in India. The British had realised that the Mughal emperor was still important to the people and they saw him as their leader. It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show in Delhi, the city the Mughal emperors had ruled earlier. The British thought that by doing this they would acknowledge people about their power and authority.
- So, a grand Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India was held in Delhi in 1877.
- Later, a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the crowning of King George V in 1911. It was at this Durbar that the decision to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced. These displays showed the people of India the ultimate power and supremacy of the British.
Q7. How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?
- The Old City of Delhi was constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort-palace complex, with the river Jamuna flowing near it. The city was characterised by mosques, havelis, crowded mohallas, narrow and winding lanes and by lanes and water channels.
- The British gained control of Delhi in 1803. Before the revolt of 1857, the British adjusted themselves to the Mughal culture of the Old City by living in the Walled City, enjoying Urdu/Persian culture and poetry, and participating in local festivals. The Delhi College was established in 1792, which led to a great intellectual flowering in sciences as well as humanities.
- After the revolt, the British wanted Delhi to forget its Mughal past so it changed the old city of Delhi.
The area around the Fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions and mosques (though temples were left intact).
- The British wanted a clear ground for security reasons. Mosques in particular were either destroyed, or put to other uses. For instance, the Zinatal-Masjid was converted into a bakery. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
- One-third of the city was demolished, and its canals were filled up.
- In the 1870s, the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls.
- The British now began living in the sprawling Civil Lines area that came up in the north, away from the Indians in the Walled City. The Delhi College was turned into a school, and shut down in 1877.
- The British constructed a new city, known as New Delhi, South of the Old City. Built as a complete contrast to the Old City, New Delhi became the centre of power and the Old city was pushed to neglect.
Q8. How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
Ans: The partition of India affected the livelihood, art and culture of the city of Delhi.
- Days after Indian Independence and Partition, fierce rioting began. Thousands of people in Delhi were killed and their homes looted and burned.
- Over two-thirds of Delhi Muslims migrated to Pakistan and almost 44,000 homes were abandoned. Their places were taken over by Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan. These refugees were mostly rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and shopkeepers.
- The partition of India in 1947 led to a massive transfer of people on both sides of the new border. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled (nearly 500,000 people were added to Delhi’s population).
- Delhi became a city of refugees, with people living in camps, schools, military barracks and gardens. After Partition, their lives changed as they took up new jobs as hawkers, vendors, carpenters and iron-smiths.
- New colonies such as Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar came up at the time. Shops and stalls were set up to cater to the demands of the migrants. Schools and colleges also came up.
- The large migration from Punjab changed the social and cultural milieu of Delhi. An urban culture largely based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities, in food, dress and the arts.