NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1- The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Question1. Write a note on:
a) Guiseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence
d) Frankfurt Parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
- Giuseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
- Mazzini believed that God has intended the nations to be the natural units of mankind, So he did not want Italy to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.
- He founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian unification: “One, free, independent, Republican Nation.”
- Mazzini, an Italian nationalist was a fervent advocate of republicanism and envisioned a united, free and independent Italy.
- Often viewed in Italy of the time as a god-like figure, the antifascist Mazzini Society, founded in the United States in 1939 by Italian political refugees, took his name; they, like him, served Italy from exile.
- Count Camilo de Cavour: Cavour was chief minister of Sardinia-Piedmont state who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a Democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. He engineered a careful diplomatic alliance with France, which helped Sardinia-Piedmont defeat the Austrian forces in 1859, and thereby free the northern part of Italy from the Austrian Habsburgs.
- Cavour’s diplomacy had by this time earned him the reputation of being one of the most skilful of European statesmen.
- Cavour is remembered as probably the most significant figure in the Italian Risorgimento or resurgence.
- The Greek War of Independence mobilised nationalist feelings among educated elite across Europe.
- This was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire.
- Following years of negotiation, three Great Powers—Russia, Britain and France—decided to intervene in the conflict and each nation sent a navy to Greece.
- The Greeks were supported by the West European countries, while poets and artists hailed Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised the public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
- The Greek Revolution is celebrated by the modern Greek state as a national day on 25 March.
- The Frankfurt Parliament: It was an all-German National Assembly formed by the middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans belonging to the different German regions.
- It was convened on 18 May 1848 in the Church of St. Paul, in the city of Frankfurt. This assembly drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
- After long and controversial debates, the assembly produced the so-called Frankfurt Constitution which proclaimed a German Empire based on the principles of parliamentary democracy.
- However, it faced opposition from the aristocracy and military. Also, as it was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end, it was forced to disband on 31 May 1849.
- The role of women in nationalist struggles: The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years.
- Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly.
- When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
- Nations were portrayed as female figures. The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life rather it sought to give the abstract idea of a nation a concrete form.
- Thus women participated in nationalist movements but were not given equality in political rights.
Question 2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
- Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasising the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag, a tricolour replaced the royal standard.
- The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens.
- New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
- A central administrative system made uniform laws for the entire nation.
- Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
- Discouraging regional dialects and promoting French as a common language of the nation.
Question 3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Question 4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Question 5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
- He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with all privileges based on birth. It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- In towns too, guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
- Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the new found freedom.
- Each state possessed its own currency and weights and measures.
Question 1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
- Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national unification, a nation-state with a written constitution and parliamentary administration. They wanted to establish individual freedom and equality before the law and equal political rights.
- Socially, they wanted to rid society of its class-based partialities and birthrights. Serfdom and bonded labour had to be abolished.The Issue of political rights to women also was a social issue. Liberal also stressed the inviolability of private property.
- Economically they demanded freedom of markets and right to property. Abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.
Question 2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
- Romanticism was a European cultural movement aimed at developing national unity by creating a sense of shared heritage and common history. The Romantic artists’ emphasis on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings gave shape and expression to nationalist sentiments. The strength of art in promoting nationalism is well exemplified in the role played by European poets and artists in mobilising public opinion to support the Greeks in their struggle to establish their national identity.
- Folk songs, dances, and poetry contributed to popularising the spirit of nationalism and patriotic fervour in Europe. Collecting and recording the different forms of folk culture was important for building a national consciousness. Being a part of the lives of the common people, folk culture enabled nationalists to carry the message of nationalism to a large and diverse audience. The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and popularised the Polish nationalist struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
- The language also played a distinctive role in developing nationalist feelings in Europe. An example of this is how during the Russian occupation, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance. During this period, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. Following the defeat of an armed rebellion against Russian rule in 1831, many members of the clergy in Poland began using language as a weapon of national resistance. They did so by refusing to preach in Russian, and by using Polish for Church gatherings and religious instruction. A large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach Russia. The emphasis on the use of vernacular language, the language of the masses, helped spread the message of national unity.
Question 3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
- Political fragmentation: Till the middle of the nineteenth century, the present-day nations of Germany and Italy were fragmented into separate regions and kingdoms ruled by different princely houses.
- Revolutionary uprisings: Nineteenth-century Europe was characterised by both popular uprisings of the masses and revolutions led by the educated, liberal middle classes. The middle classes belonging to the different German regions came together to form an all-German National Assembly in 1848. However, on facing opposition from the aristocracy and military, and on losing its mass support base, it was forced to disband. From then on Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.
- In the Italian region, during the 1830s, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini sought to establish the unitary Italian Republic. However, the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy.
- Unification with the help of the army: After the failure of the revolutions, the process of German and Italian unification was continued by the aristocracy and the army. Germany was united by the Prussian chief minister Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. The German Empire was proclaimed in 1871.
- The Italian state of Sardinia-Piedmont played a role similar to that played by Prussia. Count Camillo de Cavour (the Chief Minister) led the movement to unite the separate states of nineteenth-century Italy with the help of the army and an alliance with France. The regions annexed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a united Italy. The Italian nation was proclaimed in 1861 and Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. The papal states joined in 1870.
Question 4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
- The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
- The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
- The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
- The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
- The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
- The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag, the national anthem, the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
Question 5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
- Balkans were comprised of various geographic and ethnic nations like modern Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and many. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman empire.
- Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans because of the spread of ideas of romantic nationalism as also the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire that had previously ruled over this area. The different Slavic communities in the Balkans began to strive for independent rule. One by one European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
- They were jealous of each other and every state wanted more territory, even at the expense of others. Also, the hold of imperial power over the Balkans made the situation worse. Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary all wanted more control over this area. These conflicts ultimately led to the First World War in 1914.