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Agricultural Development

Agriculture development implies giving assistance to farmers or crop producers by providing them various agricultural support. Providing security, helping in the research area, employing advanced techniques, checking pests and facilitating diversity all fall under the category of agriculture development. In the colonial dominion, there was neither equity nor growth in the agricultural division. The strategy and rule makers of independent India addressed these problems through land reforms and advancing the use of ‘High Yielding Variety’ (HYV) seeds which guided in a revolution in Indian agriculture.

Land Reforms in India

Land reform means equity in agriculture, which also means the shift in the ownership of landholdings. Land reform normally relates to the redistribution of land from the rich to the poor. More deeply, it involves control of operation, ownership, sales, leasing, and inheritance of land. In a country like India with vast deficiency and irregular arrangement, of land, with a huge mass of the rural people below the poverty line, there are captivating economic and political disputes for land reform.

In recent years the theory of land reforms has expanded in the identification of the strategic role of land and agriculture in development. Therefore, Land reform has, become similar to agrarian change or rapid development of the agrarian structure. This structure includes the land tenure system, farm organization, the pattern of cultivation, the scale of the farm operation, the terms of tenancy, and the system of rural credit, marketing, and education. It also deals with advanced technology.

Also read: Indian Industries during british rule

Green Revolution in India

At the time of Independence, 75 percent of India’s population was dependent on agriculture. Agriculture production was very less because of the usage of old technology. The slack in agriculture was destroyed by the green revolution. This means there was a large improvement in the production of agricultural grains by the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, notably for wheat and rice. The use of these seeds needed the use of manure and pesticide in the right amounts as well as the constant supply of water; all these utilizations had to be in the correct proportions.

However, the farmers who started and continued with HYV seeds needed assured irrigation facilities along with the financial resources to buy manure and pesticide. The adoption of HYV seeds was limited states like Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. Later from the mid-1970s to mid-1980s, the green revolution was shifted to a large number of states. This revolution made India a self-sufficient country in food grains.

Market Surplus

Increase in agricultural production is necessary but it is not sufficient. If a substantial portion of the agricultural increase is used by the farmers themselves rather than selling in the market, the greater production will not make an exception to the economy as a whole. On the other hand, if a large quantity of agricultural product is sold in the market by the farmers, the greater product will make a difference to the market. The part of the agricultural product sold in the market by the farmers is called marketed surplus.

Q.1-Explain the need and type of land reforms implemented in the agriculture
Need of Land Reforms· During the colonial rule there was neither growth nor equity in the agricultural sector.

· At independence, about 75 percent of the country’s population was dependent on agriculture.

· Land Reforms aimed at removing all obstacles in agricultural development arose due to a land holding pattern, agricultural tenancy, etc.

Types of Land Reforms· Land reforms refer to those reforms related to ownership of land, land revenue, Rules, and regulations, etc.
Abolition of Intermediaries


· Intermediaries between the government and actual tillers of the soil, popularly known as Zamindars have been abolished.

· The abolition of intermediaries brought 2 crore tenants into direct contact with the government.

Regulation of Rent· To put an end to excessive or illegal rent, rents have been fixed.

· It should not be exceeded 1/3rd of the value of the crop.

Security of Tenure


· Most of the states have passed legislation to provide security to tenant cultivation.

· The tenant cannot be removed from the land, except under law.

· In case landowner needs land for self-cultivation, the tenant also has to be given prescribed minimum area for cultivation.

Consolidation of Holidings · Consolidation of holdings implying holdings of a farmer’s land at one place, rather than scatter in pieces at several places.

· Despite of all efforts only about 30% of the cultivated area could be consolidated in India, mostly in the states of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.

Ceiling of Land Holdings · With a view to promoting equality in the distribution of land, the ceiling has been imposed on the holding size.

· It refers to maximum and minimum limits to the size of a holding which one is permitted to hold.

· The surplus land i.e. over and above the ceiling limit has been redistributed by the government to small or landless labors.

Coorporative Farming


· Under this scheme, all the landowners in the village form co-operative society for cultivation of land in the village.

· It is encouraged to enhance the bargaining power of the smallholders in the competitive marketing structure.

Q.2-What is cooperative farming?
ANS: Co-operative farming is a scheme under which landowners of the village form co-operative society for cultivation of land in the village.
Q.3-How much part of land was consolidated?
ANS: Only 30% of cultivated land could be consolidated.
Multiple Choice Question:
Q.1 _____________refers to maximum and minimum limits to the size of a holding which one is permitted to hold.
a. Ceiling on Land Holdings
b. Consolidation of Holding
c. Security of tenured
d. All of the above
Q.2 Land reforms aimed at
a. Rent Regulation
b. Land Holding pattern
c. Abolition of Intermediaries
d. All of the above
Q.3 ___________aimed at removing all obstacles in agricultural development arose due to land.
holding pattern, agricultural tenancy etc.
a. Tax reforms
b. Trade reforms
c. Land reforms
d. None of the above
Q.4 _____________ was imposed to promote equality in distribution of land.
a. Taxes
b. Subsidies
c. Land ceiling
d. None of the above
Answer Key
1-a, 2-d, 3-c, 4-c

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