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# Aggregate Demand and its Components

In chapter 2 of Macroeconomics, National Income Accounting, we had learnt a few terms in an economy (Gross Domestic Product – GDP) like :

• Consumption
• Investment or the total output of final commodities and services

These terms have dual associations. In Chapter 2 these terms were used in the accounting sense indicating actual values of these items as measured by the pursuits within the economy in a certain year. We term these actual or accounting values done afterwards the measures of these items.

These terminologies, however, can be used with a different association. Consumption may indicate not what people have actually utilised in a year, but what they had planned to utilise during the same period. Similarly, investment mean the amount a manufacturer plans to add to his or her catalogue (inventory). It may be distinct from what he or she ends up doing. Suppose the manufacturer plans to add 1,000 worth commodities to her stockpile by the end of the year. Her planned investment is, hence, 1,000 in that year. However, due to an unpredicted increase of demand for the commodities in the market the volume of the sales shoots up what they had outlined to sell and to meet this extra surplus demand, she has to sell commodities worth 300 from her stockpile. Hence, at the end of the year, their catalogue increases by (1,000 – 300) = 700 only. Their outlined investment is 1,000 whereas the actual or ex post, investment would be 700 only. We call the outlined values of the variables – utilisation, investment or output of final commodities – their ex post measures.

In simple words, ex-ante portrays what has been outlined , and ex-post portrays what has actually happened. In order to comprehend the determination of earning, we need to know the outlined values of distinct components of the average demand.

 5-6 MARKS QUESTIONS Q.1-EXPLAIN THE MEANING AND COMPONENTS OF AGGREGATE DEMAND? ANSWER: (A) MEANING Aggregated demand means the total demand for final goods & services in an economy.· It is actually Total (Final) Expenditure of all the units of the economy i.e. Households, Firms, Government & Rest of the World. (B)FOLLOWING ARE THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF AGGREGATE DEMAND: COMPONENTS OF AGGREGATE DEMAND AD = C + I + G + (X-M) (a) PRIVATE (HOUSEHOLD) CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE (C ) It comprises a household’s expenditure on the consumption of goods and services.These goods can be durable, semi-durable or non-durable.Consumption of households depends upon their Disposable Income & MPC. (b) INVESTMENT EXPENDITURE ( I ) It refers to the expenditure incurred by firms on the purchase of capital goods like machines, plant, equipment, etc. to increase the production capacity.Investment decision depends upon the relative values of MEI (Rate of Return) & Rate of Interest. (c) GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE (G) It refers to expenditure incurred by the government on the purchase of consumer goods and capital goods to satisfy the collective wants of the society. For example– Public parks, Public hospitals, Roads, etc.Government expenditure depends upon the priorities of the government. (d) NET EXPORTS (X-M) It is the difference between exports and imports.It reflects the net demand for a domestic product by rest of the world.Net exports depend upon many things like Foreign Trade Policy, Foreign Exchange Rate, Comparative Prices & Quality, etc.
 Q.2-EXPLAIN AGGREGATE DEMAND WITH THE HELP OF A HYPOTHETICAL SCHEDULE? (A)MEANING Aggregate demand means the total demand for final goods & services in an economy.It is actually Total (Final) Expenditure of all the units of the economy i.e. Households, Firms, Government & Rest of the World.But in the case of two sector model, we consider only the Consumption Expenditure of Households and Investment Expenditure of Firms. (B) HYPOTHETICAL SCHEDULE Income (Y)(in Crore) Consumption (C)(in Crore) Investments (I)(in Crore) AD=C+I(in Crore) 0 40 20 60 100 120 20 140 200 200 20 220 300 280 20 300 400 360 20 380 (C) EXPLANATION In the given schedule, it can be observed that:Even at zero levels of income, consumption of 40 Crore and Investment of 20 Crore prevails which is autonomous consumption and autonomous investment. AD is a sum of consumption and Investment which is 60 Crore.Every time with the increase in income by 100 crores, consumption is also increasing by `80 crore but Investment being autonomous remains the same at all levels of income. AD, which is the sum of C and I, also changes but after zero levels, it fully depends upon Consumption expenditure.So, with an increase in income AD also increases, but the rate of increase in AD is less than the rate of increase in income.

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