Activity Ratio: Definition, Types, Formula, Example

Activity ratios are used to determine the efficiency of the organisation in utilising its assets for generating cash and revenue. It is used to check the level of investment made on an asset and the revenue that it is generating. For this reason, the activity ratio is also known as the efficiency ratio or the more popular turnover ratio.
The role of activity ratio or turnover ratio is in the evaluation of the efficiency of a business by careful analysis of the inventories, fixed assets and accounts receivables.
Let us discuss the types of activity ratios.

Types of Activity Ratios

  1. Stock Turnover ratio or Inventory Turnover Ratio
  2. Debtors Turnover ratio or Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio
  3. Creditors Turnover ratio
  4. Working capital turnover ratio.
  5. Total Asset Turnover ratio
  6. Fixed Asset Turnover ratio
  7. Current Asset Turnover ratio

The following are discussed below.

Stock Turnover Ratio

This is one of the most important turnover ratios which highlights the relationship between the inventory or stock in the business and cost of the goods sold. It shows how fast the inventory gets cleared in an accounting period or in other words, the number of times the inventory or the stock gets sold or consumed. For this reason, it is also known as the inventory turnover ratio.
It is calculated by the following formula
Stock Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory
A high stock turnover ratio is indicative of fast moving goods in a company while a low stock turnover ratio indicates that goods are not getting sold and are being stored at warehouses for an extended period of time.

Debtor Turnover Ratio

This ratio is an important indicator of a company which shows how well a company is able to provide credit facilities to its customers and at the same time is also able to recover the due amount within the payment period.
It is also known as accounts receivable turnover ratio as the payments for credit sales that will be received in the future are known as accounts receivables.
The formula for calculating Debtor Turnover ratio is
Debtor Turnover Ratio = Credit Sales / Average Debtors
A higher ratio indicates that the credit policy of the company is sound, while a lower ratio shows a weak credit policy.

Creditors Turnover Ratio

Creditors turnover ratio is a measure of the capability of the company to pay off the amount for credit purchases successfully in an accounting period.
It shows the number of times the account payables are cleared by the company in an accounting period. For this reason, it is also known as the Accounts payable turnover ratio.
The formula for calculating creditors turnover ratio is
Creditors Turnover ratio = Net Credit Purchases / Average Creditors
Where average creditors are also known as average accounts payable.
A high ratio is indicative that a company is able to finance all the credit purchases and vice versa.

Working Capital Turnover Ratio

This ratio is helpful in determining the effectiveness with which a company is able to utilise its working capital for generating sales of its goods.
The formula for calculating working capital turnover ratio is
Working capital turnover ratio = Sale or Costs of Goods Sold / Working Capital
If a company has a higher level of working capital it shows that the working capital of the business is utilized properly and on the other hand, a low working capital suggests that business has too many debtors and the inventory is unused.

Total Asset Turnover Ratio

The total asset turnover ratio is a turnover ratio that measures the company’s ability to generate sales from its assets. The total asset turnover ratio calculates how much sales the assets are producing.
It is calculated by the following formula
Total Assets Turnover Ratio = Net Sales / Total Assets

Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio

Fixed asset turnover ratio is an indicator of how the company is using its fixed assets for generating sales. A high fixed asset turnover ratio shows the company’s efficiency in utilising investment made on fixed assets, which resulted in more revenue generation.
It is generally used as a performance indicator for manufacturing industries.
The formula for calculating the fixed asset turnover ratio is
Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio = Net Sales / Fixed assets

Current Asset Turnover Ratio

Current Asset Turnover Ratio is an activity ratio or turnover ratio that measures a firm’s ability in generating sales from the current assets, which includes cash, accounts receivables, inventory etc.
The current asset turnover ratio is calculated as follows
Current Asset Turnover Ratio = Net Sales / Current Assets
A higher current turnover ratio is indicative of the company’s ability to generate more sales using minimum investment in the current assets.

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