CBSE Class 10 History NCERT Solutions Ch-7 Print Culture and Modern World LAQ

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CBSE Class 10 History
NCERT Solutions
Ch-7
Print Culture and Modern World LAQ


Social Sciences CBSE Class 10 Print Culture and Modern World LAQ

 Q.1. Trace the history of print in China.
Or
How did China remain a major producer of printed materials for a long time ?
Or
‘The imperial state in China, was the major producer of printed material.’ Support this statement. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) Hand Printing : The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing. From AD 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper – also invented there- against the inked surface of woodblocks. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side. Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate, with remarkable accuracy, the beauty of calligraphy.
(ii) Major producer : The imperial state in China was, for a very long time, the major producer of printed material. China possessed a huge bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations. Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. From the sixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went up and that increased the volume of print.
(iii) Printing in the 17th century : By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified. Print was no longer used just by scholar officials. Merchants used print in their everyday life, as they collected trade information. Reading increasingly became a leisure activity. The new readership preferred fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies, anthologies of literary masterpieces, and romantic plays. Rich women began to read, and many women began publishing their poetry and plays. Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.
(iv) Printing in the 19th century : This new reading culture was accompanied by a new technology. Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were imported in the fate nineteenth century as Western powers established their outposts in China. Shanghai became the hub of the new print culture, catering to the Western-style schools. From hand printing there was now a gradual shift to mechanical printing.

Q.2. Mention some of the important characteristics of print culture of Japan.
Ans. (i) Introduced by the Buddhist missionaries : The Buddhist missionaries from China introduced the handprinting technology into Japan around AD 768-770.
(ii) Old book : The oldest Japanese book, printed in AD 868, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra, containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
(iii) Material: Playing cards, paper money and textile products were used for printing pictures.
(iv) Cheap books : In the medieval Japan, the works of poets and prose writers were regularly published, and books were cheap and abundant.
(v) Print in Edo (Tokyo) : In the late 18th century, in the flourishing urban circles at Edo (later to be known as Tokyo), illustrated collections of paintings depicting an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans and teahouse gatherings.

Q.3. Trace the history of print in Europe.
Or
How did print culture develop in Europe ? Explain. [CBSE 2010, 2012 (D)]
Or
How did print come to Europe from China ? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) Paper from China : Paper reached Europe from China through the Silk route in the 11th century. With this, the production of manuscripts written by scribes became a regular feature.
(ii) Role of travellers and explorers : Marco Polo, a great explorer reached Italy after several years of exploration in China in the year 1295. Marco Polo brought back with him the technology of woodblock printing. Now Italians started publishing books with woodblocks. The technology became popular in other parts of Europe, as well.
(iii) Woodblock printing : By the early fifteenth century, woodblocks started being widely used in Europe to print textiles, playing cards and religious pictures with simple, brief texts.
(iv) Johann Gutenberg and the printing press : A major revolution in the print technology was brought by Johann Gutenberg. He developed the first known printing press in the 1430’s. The first book he printed was the Bible.
(v) Spread of printing presses : In the next hundred years i.e. between 1450 and 1550, printing presses were set up in most countries of Europe.

Q.4. Who was Johann Gutenberg ? Explain his role in the history of printing. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Who invented the printing press ? How did he develop the print technology ? [CBSE 2009 (F)]
Ans. Johann Gutenberg was a German goldsmith and inventor, credited with the inventing of the movable type printing in Europe.Gutenberg was the son of a merchant, and his childhood was spent on a large agricultural estate. From his childhood, he had seen wine and olive presses. By and by, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets. (Trinket-A small item of jewellery that is cheap or of low quality). Using this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted the existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press became the base model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system. In 1455, Gutenberg published his 42-lines Bible, commonly known as the Gutenberg Bible. About 180 copies were printed most on paper and some on vellum.

Q.5. In which way did the early printed books closely resemble the manuscripts? Explain.
[CBSE 2013]
Or
Give three ways in which early printed books closely resembled manuscripts. [CBSE 2011]
Ans. (i) Early printed books were technically printed but those were not very different from manuscripts.
(ii) There were many kinds of same features available in similar books which made printed books closely resembling with manuscripts.
(iii) Both printed books and manuscripts looked similar because metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten style.
(iv) Like handwritten manuscripts, borders of printed books were also illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns and illustrations were painted.
(v) In the books printed for rich people, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed pages.
(vi) Each buyer could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.

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Q.6. What were the features of the new books which were produced in Europe after the invention of the Gutenberg’s press ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Cheap : The books produced were very cheap as compared to earlier books.
(ii) Resemblance with manuscript : Printed books resembled greatly the written manuscripts in appearance and layout. The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
(iii) Handwork : Borders of the books were illuminated by hand, with foliage and other patterns.
(iv) Role of painting : Illustrations were painted. The books printed for the elites had space for decoration.
(v) Different painting schools : Different painting schools prevailed and a person could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations exclusively for him.

Q.7. Mention some of the innovations which have improved the printing technology after the 17th century. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Or
Highlight any three innovations which have improved the printing technology from 19th century onwards. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. Invention which improved the printing technology after 17th century are listed below :
(i) Metal Press : In the 19th century, there were a series of innovations in the printing technology. Now the press was made out of metal.
(ii) Rotary Printing Press : Richard March Hoe, an American inventor designed and improved the printing press. He invented the Rotary Printing Press, a design much faster than the old flat-bed printing press. The new press could print* about 8,000 sheets per hour. The new press was very useful for printing newspapers.
(iii) Offset Press : In the late nineteenth century, the offset press was developed which could print up to six colours at the same time.
(iv) Electrically Operated Presses : From the turn of the twentieth century, electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations. A series of many other developments followed. Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric control of the colour register were introduced.
The accumulation of several individual mechanical improvements transformed the appearance of the printed texts.

Q.8. “Oral culture and print culture were complimentary to each other”. Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites. Common people lived in a world of oral culture.
(ii) With the printing press, books could reach out to wider sections of society. If earlier, there was a hearing public, now a reading public came into being.
(iii) Publishers had to keep in mind the wider reach of the printed books. Even those who did not read, could enjoy listening to the books being read out.
(iv) So, printers began publishing popular ballads and folk tales and such books would be profusely illustrated with pictures. These were then sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in taverns in towns.

Q.9. How did the oral culture enter print and how was the printed material transmitted orally ? Explain with suitable examples. [CBSE 2008 (F), Sept. 2012]
Or
How did the printers manage to attract the people, largely illiterate, towards, printed books ?
[CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. Oral culture entered print in the following ways:
(i) Printers published popular ballads and folk tales.
(ii) Books were profusely illustrated with pictures.
Printed material was transmitted orally in the following ways :
(i) These were sung at gatherings in villages, taverns and in towns.
(ii) They were recited in public gatherings. For example, Indian novelist Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay used to read out his novels to a gathering.

Q.10. Explain the role of print in the religious reforms in India. [CBSE 2011]
Ans. (i) Debate over social issues: Print initiated an intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people.
(ii) Ideas of Reformers: Print carried the ideas of social reformers to the common people. For example Sambad Kaumudl carried the ideas and philosophy of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
(iii) Reforms in Muslims: In north India, the ulama were deeply anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynasties. They feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion, change the Muslim personal laws. To counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian and Urdu translations of holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts. The Deoband Seminary, founded in 1867, published thousands upon thousands of fatwas telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
(iv) Reforms in Hindus: Among Hindus, too, print encouraged the reading of religious texts, especially in the vernacular languages. The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, a sixteenth- century text, came out from Calcutta in 1810.

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Q.11. ‘Print not only stimulate the publication of conflicting opinions amongst communities, but it also connected communities and people in different parts of India.’ Explain.
[CBSE 2008 (O), 2009 (D), Sept. 2011]
Or
How did print help connect communities and people in different parts of India ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) Debate on religious, social and economic issues : From the early nineteenth century, there were serious debates on religious, social and economic issues. Different people had different opinions regarding the colonial society. Reformers offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions. There were many who criticised the existing practices and campaigned for reforms while others countered.
(ii) Impact on debates : These debates were carried out openly in public and in print. Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they also shaped the nature of the debates.
(iii) New ideas and clashes : A wider range of people could now participate in these public discussions and express their views. New ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions.
(iv) Pan-Indian identities : Newspapers conveyed news from one place to another, creating pan-Indian identities. Newspapers reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities.
(v) Print and depressed classes : From the 19th century, issue of caste discrimination began to be written. Jyotiba Phule, Dr B.R. Ambedkar, E. V. Ramaswamy wrote extensively on the depressed classes and provided the depressed classes a common platform.

Q.12. “By the end of the 19th century a new visual culture was taking shape.” Write any three features of this new visual culture. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008, Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) Printing Press and visual culture : The Printing press had a deep impact on the visual images also. Now, visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies.
(ii) Images for mass circulation : Painters like Raja Ravi Verrna produced images for mass circulation. Wood engravers, who , made woodblocks were employed by the print shops. Cheap prints and calendars could be bought even by the poor.
(iii) Caricatures and cartoons : By the 1870s, caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers. Some of these made fun of the educated Indian’s fascination to copy Western tastes and clothes. Some openly criticised the imperial rule.
(iv) Reduction of cost and visual culture :
Mass production of visual images reduced the cost of production. So cheap prints and calendars were available in the market even for the poor to decorate the walls of their homes.
(v) Indian form : The new visual culture acquired distinctively Indian forms and style. Artists like Raja Ravi Verma depicted the scenes from Hindu epics.

Q.13. ‘Not everyone welcomed the printed books, and those who did also had fears about it.’ Explain by giving examples.
Ans. (i) Fear of negative thoughts : Many were of the opinion that printed words and the wider circulation of books, would have a negative impact on people’s minds.
(ii) Rebellious and irreligious thoughts : They feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read, then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might gain importance.
(iii) Destruction of valuable literature :
There was also a fear in the minds of scholars that the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed.
(iv) Criticism of Roman Catholic Church : Martin Luther was a German monk, priest, professor and a Church reformer. In 1517, he wrote Ninety Five Theses and openly criticized many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. This led to a division within the Church, and led to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation,
(v) Compilation of ancient and medieval scientific text : The ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people. Ancient and Medieval scientific texts were compiled and published, and maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed. When scientists like Issac Newton began to public their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of scientifically minded readers. The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read. Thus their ideas about science, reason and rationality found their way into popular literature.

Q.14. Why did people in the eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism? [CBSE 2011]
Ans. (i) Increase in literacy rate: Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries literacy rates went up in most parts of Europe. By the end of the eighteenth century, in some parts of Europe literacy rates were as high as 60 to 80 per cent. As literacy and schools spread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania.
(ii) Role of periodicals: The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century, Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade, as well as news of developments in other places.
(iii) Ideas of scientists and philosophers: Similarly, the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people. Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published, and maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed. The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read. Thus their ideas about science, reason and rationality found their way into popular literature.
(iv) Print a powerful engine of progress:
Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth-century France, declared: ‘The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.’ In many of Mercier’s novels, the heroes are transformed by acts of reading.

Q.15. Explain the factors which were responsible for creating a virtual reading mania in Europe. [CBSE 2014]
Or
How did a new reading public emerged with the printing press ? Explain. [CBSE 2010 (D)]
Or
Explain any three reasons for an increase in reading mania in Europe in the 18th Century.
[CBSE Sept. 2011]
Ans. (i) Johann Gutenberg’s printing press : The
revolution in printing was brought by Johann Gutenberg’s printing press. With the invention of printing press, the cost of producing a book came down. So now even the common people could afford the books.
(ii) Increase in literacy rate : The seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries saw the rapid rise of literacy rate in most parts of Europe. Churches of different denominations set up schools in villages. By the end of the eighteenth century, in some parts of Europe, the literacy rate was as high as 60 to 80 per cent.
(iii) New forms of literature : New forms of popular literature were printed, which targeted new audiences. There were almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and folk tales. –
(iv) Periodicals : The next phase was the development of periodicals. The periodicals combined information about current affairs with entertainment. Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade, as well as news of developments in other places.

Q.16. ‘Many historians have argued that print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred.’ Explain. [CBSE 2009 (O)]
Or
“Print culture created the conditions within which French revolution occurred.” Give any three suitable arguments to support the statement. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Ans. (i) Ideas of the enlightened : The print popularised the ideas of the enlightened thinkers, who attacked the authority of the Church and the despotic power of the state, e.g., Voltaire and Rousseau.
(ii) New culture : The print created a new culture of dialogue and debate and the public became aware of reasoning. They recognised the need to question the existing ideas and beliefs.
(iii) Criticism of the noble class : The literature of 1780s mocked the royalty and criticised their morality and the existing social order. This literature led to the growth of hostile sentiments against the monarchy.
(iv) New thinking : Print did not directly shape the minds of the people, but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently.
(v) Role of means of mass communication : Means of mass communication like newspaper, journals, chapbooks carried information about wars, trade as well as news of development in other places. All this had a impact on the minds of the people.

Q.17. What did the spread of print culture in the 19th century Europe mean to :
(a) Children (b) Women (c) Workers.
Or
Explain, how had the print culture changed the way of life of women in late nineteenth century in India. [CBSE 2010 (D)]
Ans. (a) Children :
(i) As primary education became compulsory from the late nineteenth century, children became an important category of readers.
(ii) Production of school textbooks became critical for the publishing industry.
(iii) A children’s press, devoted to literature for children alone, was set up in France in 1857. This press published new works as well as old fairy tales, and folk tales.
(iv) The Grimm Brothers in Germany spent years compiling traditional folk tales gathered from peasants.
(v) Anything that was considered unsuitable for children or would appear vulgar to the elites, was not included in the published version. Rural folk tales thus acquired a new form. In this way, print recorded old tales, but also changed them.
(b) Women :
(i) Women as readers : Lives and feelings of women began to be written in intense ways. So women became important as readers. Penny magazines were especially meant for women, as were manuals teaching proper behaviour and housekeeping.
(ii) Women as writers : Many women novelists like Jane Austin, Bronte Sisters, George Eliot wrote about women. Novels and other journals began exploring the world of women – their emotions, identities, their experiences and problems. The writings of woman became important in defining a new type of woman – a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.
(iii) Novels and books on women : As the readership of women was increasing publishers started producing novels and journals for women. Many journals began carrying writings by women, and explained why women should be educated.
(c) Workers :
(i) Lending Libraries : Lending libraries had been in existence from the seventeenth century onwards. In the nineteenth century, lending libraries in England became instruments for educating the white-collar workers, artisans and lower-middle-class people.
(ii) Autobiographies : Sometimes, self- educated working class people wrote for themselves. After the working day was gradually shortened from the mid nineteenth century, workers had some time for self-improvement and self expression. They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers.
(iii) Novels on the lives of the workers : In the 19th century, Europe entered the industrial age. Factories came up, profits increased and the economy grew. But at the same time, workers faced problems of unemployment, low wages, poor working conditions. Many novelists such as Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy wrote about the adverse impact of industrialisation on the lives of workers.

Q.18. Trace the growth of print technology in India.
Ans. (i) Handwritten manuscripts : India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.
(ii) Print came to India : The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid 16th century.
(iii) James Hicky and print : From 1780, James Augustus Hicky began to edit the Bengal Gazette, a weekly magazine.
(iv) Print in the 18th century : By the close of the 18th century, a number of newspapers and journals appeared in print. The first Indian weekly i.e. Bengal Gazette also came into picture in the late 18th century
(v) Print in the 19th century : By the end of the 19th century, a visual culture started taking place. By 1870’s caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers.

Q.19. How did the women writers use the print to express their opinions regarding the status of women in India ? Explain.
Or
“Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside.” Support the statement with any five suitable examples. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Rashsundari Debi, a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. Later, she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876. It was the first full- length autobiography published in the Bengali language. .
(ii) From the 1860s, many Bengali women writers like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women- about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the menfolk, they generally, served.
(iii) In the 1880s, in present-day Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of the upper-caste Hindu women, especially the widows. The poor status of women was also expressed by the Tamil writers.
(iv) In the early 20th century, the journals written by women became very popular in which women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage, etc., were discussed. Some of them offered fashion lessons for women too.

Q-20. ‘Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century.’ Explain by giving examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012, 2013]
Or
Explain the role of press in shaping the Indian society in the 19th century.
Or
How did print introduce debate and discussion ? Write three points. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
Or
“Print led to intense controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy.” Support this statement with examples. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Variety of opinions : From the early nineteenth century, there were serious debates on religious, social and economic issues. Different people had different opinions regarding the colonial society. People and social reformers offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions.
(ii) Shaping the opinion : Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they also shaped the nature of the debate. A wider section of public could now participate in these public discussions, and express their views. New ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions.
(iii) Social reforms This was a time period of intense controversies between social and religious reformers, and the Hindu orthodoxy over the social evils like widow immolation, child marriage, sati system, pardah system, etc. In Bengal, as the discussions and debates developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated circulating a variety of arguments.
For example : Raja Ram Mohan Roy published the Sambad Kaumudi from 1821, and the Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the Samachar Chandrika to oppose Roy’s opinions.
(iv) Pan Indian : Newspapers, magazines, visual images helped in creating pan Indian identity.
(v) National newspapers : Despite repressive measures, national newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India. They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. These national newspapers provided a base to the freedom struggle.

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Q.21.How were ideas and information written before the age of print in India ? How did the printing technique begin in India ? Explain. [CBSE 2008, Sept. 2010]
Or
Explain the role of missionaries in the growth of press in India. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated. They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.
(ii) Manuscripts continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print, down to the late nineteenth century.
Beginning (coming) of print technology in India.
(i) The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth century. Jesuit priests learnt Konkani and printed several tracts. By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kanara languages.
(ii)The Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin, and in 1713, the first Malayalam book was printed by them.
(iii) By 1710, Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil texts, many of them were translations of older works.

Q.22. How was die print used to spread the religious texts by various communities ? Explain by giving examples. [CBSE 2010 (F)]
Or
What was the main fear of the ‘Ulamas’ ? State any two steps taken by the ‘Ulamas’ to defend their religion ? [CBSE 2013]
Or
How did religious communities in India make use of printing technology to spread their ideas ? Explain. [CBSE-2012]
Ans. (A) Print and the Muslims :
(i) Ulemas and the print : In North India, the Ulemas, i.e., the religious heads of Muslims were deeply worried about the collapse of the Muslim dynasties. They feared that the colonial rulers would encourage conversion, and would change the Muslim personal laws. To counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses which published Persian and Urdu translations of the holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts.
(ii) Deoband Schools : The Deoband Seminary which was founded in 1867, published many fatwas making Muslim readers aware of the code of conduct to be followed in their everyday lives, and explained the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
(iii) Various Muslim Sects : All through the nineteenth century, a number of Muslim sects and seminaries appeared, each with a different interpretation of faith. Each was keen on enlarging its followers and countering the influence of its opponents. The Urdu print helped them conduct these battles in public.
(B) Print and the Hindus :
Among Hindus, too, print encouraged the readings of religious texts, especially in the vernacular languages.
(i) The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas came out from Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1810.
(ii) In the mid-nineteenth century, cheap lithographic editions flooded the North Indian markets.
(iii) From the 1880s, the Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay published many religious texts in vernacular languages,
(iv) The printed text was cheap, land portable. These could be easily carried by the people at any place and time. They could also be read out to large groups of illiterate men and women.
(v) Religious texts and books started reaching a very wide circle of people, encouraging debates and controversies within and among different religions.

Q.23. Explain the impact of print culture on Indian women. [CBSE 2009 (O), Sept. 2012]
Or
Explain any three impact of printed books on women in India in the nineteenth century.
[CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Women education : Writers started writing about the lives and feelings of women, and this increased the number of women readers. Women got interested in education, and many women schools and colleges were set up. Many journals started emphasising the importance of women education.
(ii) Women writers : In East Bengal, in the early nineteenth century, Rashsundari Debi, a young married girl wrote her autobiography, Amar Jiban (means ‘my life’) which was published in 1876.
From the 1860s, many Bengali women writers like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women, about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour, and treated unjustly by the menfolk, they served. In the 1880s, in the present-day Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of the upper-caste Hindu women, especially the widows. The poor status of women was also expressed by the Tamil writers.
(iii) Hindu writing and women : While Urdu, Tamil, Bengali and Marathi print culture had developed earlier, Hindu printing began seriously only from the 1870s. Soon, a large section of it was devoted to the education of women.
(iv) New journals : In the early 20th century, the journals written by women, became very popular in which women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage, etc., were discussed. Some of them offered fashion lessons for women.
(v) Teachings for women : Ram Chaddha published Istri Dharam Vi char to teach women how to be obedient wives. The Khalsa Tract Society published cheap booklets with a similar message. Many of these were in the form of dialogues about the qualities of a good woman.

Q.24. Describe the issue of caste as taken by the novelists in India. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Jyotiba Phule, the Maratha pioneer of low caste protest movements, wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri.
(ii) In the twentieth century, B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Naiker in Madras wrote on caste and their writings were read by people all over India.
(iii) Local protest movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts criticising ancient scriptures and envisioning a new and just future.
(iv) Kashibaba, a Kanpur mill worker wrote Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in 1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation.
(v) The poems of Sudarshan Chakr were brought together and published in a collection called Sacchi Kavitayan.

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