The total amount of water available on the planet earth is 78%. Out of this, only 3% is freshwater. The remaining amount of water is mostly saltwater which is found in seas and oceans. This is the total water distribution on planet earth. Water consists of innumerable vital properties that are essential for living beings to survive. It is a renewable source of energy that is freely found on earth. Animals and all other living creatures consume the drinkable freshwater. Water pollution is emerging as a consequence of the rapid increase in population and urbanization as well as ill-treatment of water. Due to this, the availability of freshwater is decreasing with every passing day. 0.3% of the total freshwater available on the planet is there in rivers, lakes, and swamps, etc. The other portion is found in glaciers and ice caps in the frozen state. The hydrological cycle of ocean water makes it undergo distinct processes so that it becomes consumable for fulfilling all the requirements.
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Water- a wonder liquid, is tasteless, colorless, and odorless. It does not comprise any nutrients or calories. After oxygen, it is water which is crucial for maintaining life. We can go without food for a few days, but certainly not without water. Since water distribution is not even, we should take care to minimize the effects of water pollution. In other words, we should get rid of all the sources of water pollution as well as the causes of water pollution.
Why Does Water Need to Be Available on Earth?
Water is not only absolutely necessary but also a primary requirement for all organisms. Therefore, it should always be available for the existence of living creatures. We should be aware of not doing any such activity which proves to be one of the causes of water pollution. The importance of proper water distribution in order to avoid the sources of water pollution and minimize the effects of water pollution follows below:
- It is inside an aquatic medium that every biological process occurs.
- For chemical reactions, water gets dissolved in the cells, and substances get transported from one area to another area.
- It is crucial to maintain the level of water in the body.
- Water has a great contribution to the reduction of the effects of droughts and water scarcity
- Water is also important for the survival of plants which form the food chain.
- Water distribution on the right scale is essential for marine plants to survive.
There are several causes of water pollution and different types of water pollution. Human beings contaminate water every day, and it is an utmost need to stop water pollution. Human activities are the primary causes of water pollution.
Water is a universal solvent, absorbs all of the substances, mostly which prove to be harmful to living beings. The pesticides and insecticides are dangerous sources of water pollution which the farmers use in the fields are also a part of water pollution matter.
Water pollution also occurs due to the lack of a proper system that can dispose of sewage. This results in the water getting redirected from industries to the aquatic bodies leading to industrial water pollution. Human beings, plants, animals, and even marine creatures consume this harmful water on a daily basis. Therefore we should undertake the prevention of water pollution focussing on the causes of water pollution so that we can reduce the adverse effects of water pollution on human health.
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Effects of Water Pollution: Sources of Pollution
The water pollution causes and effects are mentioned below.
- It is because of the innumerable activities which man undertake that the water constituency is disturbed chemically. This has an adverse impact on the organisms which live in that particular ecosystem. This is one of the severe effects of water pollution.
- One of the sources of water pollution is a large amount of mercury present in marine habitats which are responsible for inducing imbalances in the hormones after its consumption. This is one of the several causes of river pollution.
- Oil spills which are one of the hazardous sources of water pollution, often lead to the sudden death of aquatic creatures. This leads to a great change in the ecosystem and is one of the drastic examples of water pollution.
- The polluted water due to water pollution causes the level of fertility to deplete, which is indeed one of the harmful effects of water pollution.
- Acid rain is hazardous and can cause a lot of destruction to infrastructure.
- High phosphorus levels and nitrogen in plants are some causes of water pollution which can cause invasive plants to grow. We can categorize it as water pollution-plants.
The only water pollution solutions are that we have to keep a check on our activities and reduce the emission of waste materials as much as possible.
Fun Facts About Water
You will be amazed to see several interesting facts about water.
- The average quantity of water required for cooking food in a family of four adults is about 6,800 gallons.
- 70% of the human brain has water as its constituent.
- About 69% of the water on this planet is submerged in glaciers.
- A person is capable of living just for a week without drinking water.
- Water is responsible for regulating the temperature on earth.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
- What is the unique thing about water?
We often face this question where people ask what is so unique about water. The thing is it is capable of dissolving any solid substance that can make hardly any other liquid do. Even solid blocks of ice float on them. The liquid comprises hydrogen and oxygen atoms, and they exist with a very strong bond. Because of the presence of these two elements, water is even eligible to regulate the Earth’s temperature accordingly. Water is also important to maintain the temperatures of our body and also give us hydration. If we are dehydrated then it can lead to death.
- What are the significant 5 effects of water pollution?
The impact of water pollution is large and can put adverse effects on the environment. The major effects are
- Destruction of aquatic life, including flora and fauna.
During oil spills or such man-made disasters, millions of aquatic animals and plants lose their lives. These pollutants have led to the extinction of many species.
- Misbalance in the food chain method.
If some species are affected by water pollution then it surely affects the food chain as well.
- Affects agricultural activities adversely
In water pollution plants and crops become toxic and it is not safe to consume them.
- Contaminates drinking water.
The major issue of water pollution is that it makes the ground or river water polluted, making it not safe to drink.
- Disrupts the ecosystem
Underground bacteria play an important role in maintaining a balance in the ecosystem. Polluted water destroys these bacteria which affect all these beneficial bacteria.