Introduction on Low BP
Blood pressure is the pressure that is exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. In an adult, the normal blood pressure is 120/80 mm of Hg, and the instrument used to measure blood pressure is known as a sphygmomanometer. The blood pressure level which is lower than the normal blood pressure is known as Low Blood Pressure (Low Bp) or Hypotension. The low blood pressure level is 90/60 mm of Hg or below. It is not concerned as a serious illness issue unless and until someone starts experiencing major symptoms after changing their body posture.
Types of Low Blood Pressure
These are of 4 types categorized according to the blood pressure drops :
- Orthostatic – It is most common in all ages. It occurs when you change your position from lying down to standing or sitting. A sudden transition causes orthostatic blood pressure.
- Postprandial – It is a drop in blood pressure which happens exactly after eating. This occurs significantly in older people who are suffering from Parkinson’s disease.
- Naturally Mediated – It is a drop in blood pressure when you stand for a long time. This occurs mainly in children than in adults.
- Severe Blood Pressure – This occurs when a person experiences a sudden shock. It occurs when organs of the body do not get enough blood and oxygen for proper functioning. This is a very serious condition that has to be treated immediately.
Postural Hypotension is a medical condition that occurs either due to lying down or standing for a long time. This can also happen due to a variety of reasons like dehydration, lack of food, or being overly fatigued. This can also happen due to genetic makeup, aging, medication, dietary and physiological factors, and cute triggers such as allergy.
This most commonly occurs in those who take drugs most frequently to control high blood pressure. It may also happen in pregnancy, psychological problems, hardening of the arteries, or diabetes. The old age people are more significantly affected who have high blood pressure or autonomic nervous system dysfunction.
Reasons for Low Blood Pressure
The causes of hypotension cannot be defined clearly but may due to the following causes:
- Dehydration – It is a very common cause of hypotension and is very common in patients who are suffering from nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. This shunts blood away from the organs to the muscles.
- Excess Blood Loss – This quickly depletes a person’s body of blood, leading to low blood pressure. This may result in trauma, surgical complications or tumors, etc.
- Weakend or Dilated Heart Muscles – This causes the heart to fail and reduces the amount of blood volume it pumps out. This medical condition leads to a heart attack.
- Pericarditis – In this pericardium gets inflamed. This causes the fluid to be filled within the pericardium and compresses the heart, restricting the ability of the heart to expand, fill, and pump blood.
Low Bp Symptoms
- Dizziness – It is a sensation of becoming imbalance
- Headache – A continuous pain in the head
- Fainting – Losing consciousness for some period of time due to less amount of oxygen
- Stiff Neck – A sensation of discomfort in the neck or soreness
- Shortness and Shallow of Breath – Difficulty in breathing
- Sweating and Fever – When someone is extremely tired
- Irregular Heartbeat – Irregular beating of the heart
- Diarrhea or Vomiting – Indigestion or over digestion
- Fever – This is caused due to dehydration
- Fatigue – Feeling overtired
- Depression – A mental disorder
- Nausea – A bad and uncomfortable sensation that leads to vomiting
- Low blood pressure is the main symptom of Addison’s disease.
- Hypotension is a life-threatening complication due to an infection.
- Having normal blood pressure levels keeps your heart safe.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
1.What is Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure?
Systolic Pressure :
- It is the average pressure produced in the ventricles when they contract and pump blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery.
- The normal systolic blood pressure in an adult is 100 -140 mm of Hg.
- While representing the blood pressure reading the systolic reading is written in the numerator.
- It is the average pressure produced when the ventricles get filled with blood from the auricles.
- The normal diastolic pressure is about 60 – 80 mm of Hg.
- While representing the blood pressure reading the diastolic reading is written in the denominator.
- What are the Preventive Measures Taken for Hypotension?
The precautions for low bp are as follows:
- Drink Water Frequently – Water or fluids increases the blood volume and helps in preventing dehydration. These play an important role in treating hypotension.
- Use an Adequate Amount of Salt – A person suffering from low blood pressure should take more quantity of salt in their diet so that blood pressure may rise to the normal level.
- Exercise Daily – Doing work out for 30 to 60 minutes daily raises the heart rate and immunity power. This will help us to maintain a normal blood pressure level.