The existence of life on the planet earth is mainly based on certain functions and processes. There are certain basic vital processes, which are essential for an organism to stay healthy and to maintain the proper functioning of the body’s organ systems. They are necessary for survival. These basic essential activities performed by an organism are called life processes.
|Types of Life Processes|
Important life processes include nutrition, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction and excretion, which help in the maintenance of living organisms.
The topic of life processes had been discussed in several classes. Life processes Class 10 is a detailed version of different processes carried out by plants and animals.
Types of Life Processes
The different types of life processes are mentioned below:
Nutrition is the process where an entity takes food and utilizes it for energy. It is a pivotal biological process that helps living beings to obtain their energy from various sources.
Nutrients are the substances which provide nutrition based on body requirements.
Mode of nutrition varies from one species to another. All green plants exhibit autotrophic nutrition as they synthesize their food by the process of photosynthesis, using light, carbon dioxide and water.
Plants are autographs, they have an autotrophic mode of nutrition. They perform photosynthesis to prepare their own food. Animals are grouped into a heterotrophic mode of nutrition, as they depend on plants for food. All vertebrates, including humans and some unicellular organisms such as amoeba exhibit the holozoic mode of nutrition.
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Transportation or transportation system in plants and animals are entirely different. In animals, transportation is carried out through the circulatory system. This system includes the heart, blood, and blood carrying blood vessels.
Plants have particular tissues called vascular tissues for the conduction and transportation of materials throughout the plant parts. Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem.
Xylem conducts water and minerals from roots to shoot system while phloem transports prepared food from leaves to other plant parts.
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Metabolism is the chemical process in which different types of chemical reactions are involved in controlling the living state of the cells in an organism. It is broadly classified into catabolism and anabolism.
Catabolism: The metabolic process in which energy is released.
Anabolism: The metabolic process in which energy is stored for further requirements.
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Respiration includes the exchange of gases as well as the burning of food. Animals have a well-defined respiratory system for respiration.
In the process of respiration, glucose is broken down to extract energy. It is a redox reaction which can take place with or without oxygen and takes place in the mitochondria of the cell and releases energy in the form of ATP.
Respiration is mainly of two types- aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
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The biological process of reproducing their own offspring determines the continuity of species, generation after generation. The basic types of reproduction are sexual and asexual reproduction.
Sexual Reproduction: The process of reproducing their own offspring by the involvement of the two parents.
Asexual Reproduction: The process of reproducing their own offspring by the involvement of a single parent.
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Elimination of toxic waste substances from the body is called excretion. There are various modes of excretion and it generally differs with the different types of living species.
Plants have different modes of excretion. The oxygen during photosynthesis and carbon dioxide during respiration are given out through a structure called stomata. Excess water is removed by transpiration. They shed dead cells and even plant parts like leaves. Waste products are also stored in vacuoles and leaves that fall off. Other waste products include gums and resins, etc.
Humans have a well developed excretory system consisting of a couple of kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra. Kidney has a structural unit called nephron where the blood is filtered. After filtration, the pure blood circulates back to other parts and extracted waste products are passed into the ureter. The urinary bladder collects urine, which is excreted through the urethra.
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Difference between Plants and Animals Life Processes
Following are the important difference between the life processes of plants and animals.
|These are green in colour due to the presence of chlorophyll and provide oxygen to the atmosphere.||The animals cannot prepare their own food and consist of a specialized system to carry out different life processes.|
|Plants are rooted in the ground and cannot move from one place to another.||Animals can freely move from one place to another.|
|Plants are autotrophs and can prepare their own food.||Animals are heterotrophs and depend on plants and other animals for their food.|
|Plants store food in the form of starch. They do not have any digestive system.||Animals have a well-developed digestive system and can store their food in the form of glycogen.|
|Respiration in plants takes place through the stomata.||Exchange of gases occurs through lungs, gills, skin, etc.|
|They reproduce asexually through budding, vegetative propagation, etc. They also reproduce sexually by a process called pollination.||Animals mostly reproduce sexually. Asexual reproduction occurs in lower animals by fragmentation and budding.|
|Response to Stimulus|
|They show response to stimuli like light and touch. They are less sensitive because they do not have sense organs.||They have a well-developed nervous system and respond to any stimulus within fractions of seconds.|
Explore more: Difference Between Flora and Fauna
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Frequently Asked Questions
What do you understand by life processes?
The basic important activities performed by an organism to withstand life are called life processes. These help an organism in maintenance and survival.
What are the different life processes in human beings?
The different life processes in human beings include-nutrition, respiration, digestion, excretion, reproduction, metabolism and transportation. These processes are very important to carry out regular life activities.
Which life processes can be observed in plants?
The life processes carried out in plants are slightly different from those observed in animals. The life processes in plants include- nutrition, transportation, excretion, respiration, reproduction, sensitivity and growth.
What is the importance of life processes?
Life processes are important to carry out daily life activities. They help to produce energy and maintain homeostasis in the body. The life processes help a body survive with the changes in the environment. A slight disturbance in any of the life processes disturbs the entire functioning of the body.
What are the common life processes in both plants and animals?
The common life processes in plants and animals include- respiration, growth, nutrition, transportation, reproduction and excretion. These are carried out by all the plants and animals, digestion being an exception.
How does respiration help in carrying out life processes?
The process of respiration utilizes food to produce energy. It oxidizes carbohydrates to produce energy. The energy released is stored in the form of ATP. Mitochondria is the site of respiration.