The anatomy of flowering plants includes different types of tissues and their specialized functions. In meristematic tissues, the cells actively divide throughout their life and remain young forever. Permanent tissues are the mature tissues which have lost the ability to divide and attained a permanent shape. The secretory tissues perform the function of secretion.
Q.1. Where is the product of photosynthesis stored?
Q.2. What cells curl the leaves in plants during water stress?
A.2. Bulliform cells present in the upper epidermis of monocot leaves make the leaves curl during water stress.
Q.3. What is a cambial ring comprised of?
A.3. Cambium is a layer of actively dividing cells between the xylem and phloem tissues which is responsible for the secondary growth of roots and stem.
Q.4. If a tree is debarked, what part of the plant is being removed?
A.4. All the tissues external to the vascular cambium, including the secondary phloem, are removed.
Q.5. What are the three types of meristematic tissues?
A.5.Meristematic tissues are a group of young cells, which consists of actively dividing cells. The three main types of meristematic tissues are:
- Apical Meristem.
- Lateral Meristem.
- Intercalary Meristem.
Q.6. How is a cork formed in the plant? What is its commercial source?
A.6. The cork is formed by phellogen or cork cambium. The tissue of tannin, dead, and air-filled suberised cells formed on the outer side of phellogen is called cork.
Cork oak or Quercus suber is the commercial source of oak.
Q.7. What are the differences between lenticels and stomata?
|Minute pores found on the epidermis of the leaves.||Pores present on the tree trunk or the stem of the plant.|
|The opening and closing of stomata can be regulated.||The lenticels are always open.|
|These possess guard cells.||These do not possess guard cells.|
|They facilitate transpiration and exchange of gases.||These are only responsible for the exchange of gases.|
|Active during the day.||Active during the night.|
|The stomatal guard cells contain chlorophyll that helps in photosynthesis.||Lenticels cannot photosynthesize|
|A large amount of water vapour is emitted through the stomata.||A small amount of water vapour is released through the lenticels.|
|Not found in roots and fruits.||Found in roots and fruits.|
Q.8. Why do plants die when water excessively?
A.8. Over-watering drowns the plant and blocks the air pockets. Thus the roots do not get enough air to breathe. That is why the plants die in excessive water.
Q.9. Why and how do Palm increase in girth despite being a monocotyledonous plant?
A.9. The parenchymatous cells in the ground tissue enlarge and divide. Thus, due to repeated division, the girth of the stem increases and is known as diffused secondary growth.
Q.10. Is Pinus an evergreen tree?
A.10. Evergreen plants have green leaves throughout the year. Pinus belongs to the gymnosperm group. Pinus has a thick bark, and needle-like leaves to reduce the rate of transpiration. Pinus is well-adapted to low temperatures. It continues to prepare its food even in very cold conditions and does not shed its leaves.
Q.11. Why are phloem and xylem complex tissues?
A.11. Xylem and phloem are made up of more than one type of cells. These cells function in coordination to perform various functions.
Xylem conducts water and minerals and provides support to the plant. It is made up of tracheids, xylem parenchyma, and xylem fibres. Phloem conducts food materials to various parts of the plant. It comprises of sieve tubes, phloem parenchyma, companion cells, and phloem fibres. That is why they are known as complex tissues.
Also Refer: Difference Between Xylem And Phloem
Q.12. State the differences between the guard cells and epidermal cells. Which epidermal cell surrounds the guard cell?
|Guard Cells||Epidermal Cells|
|Smaller in size.||Larger in size.|
|Contain chloroplast.||Do not contain chloroplast.|
|The cell wall is non-uniform and thick.||The cell wall is uniform and thin.|
The epidermal cells surrounding the guard cells are called subsidiary cells.
Following are the differences between the guard cells and the epidermal cells:
Q.13. How are growth rings in a tree trunk formed? What is its importance?
A.13. The growth rings are concentric rings, also known as annual rings. Secondary growth gives rise to these rings. Secondary growth occurs due to the activity of meristematic tissue, cambium. By counting these rings, one can determine the age of the tree.
Q.14. Name the modifications of epidermal cells and the functions performed by them.
A.14. Following are the modifications of the epidermal cells:
The root hair consists of unicellular hair extending from the epidermal cells.
It increases the surface area for the absorption of water and materials.
They may be unicellular or multicellular. These are also known as trichomes.
They defend the plant against insects. They help in lowering the plant temperature and reduce water loss.
Q.15. From which part of the plant are these plant fibres obtained?
- Jute- Corchoruscapsularis
- Hemp- Stem of Cannabis sativa
- Cotton- Gossypiumhirsutum seed
- Coir- Coconut Husk.
Q.16. How is the age of the tree estimated?
A.16. To determine the age of a tree, the diameter of its heartwood is calculated by measuring the circumference of the trunk and then by checking the growth factor for the type of tree.
Q.17. What are guard cells?
A.17.Guard cells are specialized plant cells present with the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs. These cells play an important role in facilitating the gaseous exchange and controlling transpiration in plants by regulating the opening and closing of stomata.
Q.18. What is gymnosperm? Give a few examples of gymnosperms.
A.18.Gymnosperm is a seed-producing plant that includes conifers, cycads, gnetophytes and ginko. They do not produce flowers or fruits and have naked seeds. Cycas, pinus, Thuja, Cedrus, Abies, Larix are some of the examples of gymnosperms.
Q.19. What is the classification of angiosperms?
A.19.Angiosperms are vascular plants with stems, roots, and leaves. Based on the types of cotyledon, angiosperms are divided into two groups:
- Monocotyledons – The seeds have a single cotyledon. For eg., banana, sugarcane, lilies, etc.
- Dicotyledons- The seeds of these plants have two cotyledons. For eg., grapes, sunflower, tomatoes, etc.
Q.20.What are the reproductive parts of a flower?
A.20.Stamen and Pistil are the two main reproductive parts of a flower.
- Stamen, the male reproductive organ of a flower is also known as Androecium. It consists of anther and filaments.
- Pistil, the female reproductive organ of a flower is known as gynoecium. It comprises three parts -stigma, style and ovary.
Q.21.What are Permanent Tissues?
A.21.The permanent tissues are defined as the fully differentiated tissues, which have lost the power of cell division and contain nondividing cells. These tissues are derived from the meristematic tissue.
Q.22.Difference between Dicot Root and Monocot Root?
|Dicot Root||Monocot Root|
|Secondary growth is present||Secondary growth is absent|
|Cortex is very narrow||Cortex is very wide|
|Older root has a covering of cork.||Older root has a covering of exodermis|
|Xylem vessels are generally angular.||Xylem vessels are oval or rounded.|
|Examples– Beans, Peanuts, Pea, etc.||Examples– Banana, Palm, Maize, etc.|
Q.23.What is secondary growth in roots?
A.23. Secondary growth in roots is defined as the growth that results from cell division in the cambia or lateral meristems.
Q.24.What is Hutchinson’s system of classification?
A.24. It is the phylogenetic system of classification, which was proposed by John Hutchinson, an English botanist, and taxonomist. This classification is based on the three main features
- Evolutionary tendencies.
- Natural characteristics of plants.
- Interrelationship among angiosperms plants.
Q.25.List out the different types of tissues in plants?
The classification of plant tissues are mainly based on the two important criteria:
Based on the part of plants.
- Epidermal Tissues.
- Vascular Tissues.
- Ground Tissue.
Based on the types of cells.
- Meristematic tissues.
- Permanent tissues.
Q.26.Give the differences between Xylem and phloem.
|It is the complex tissue.||It is the living tissue.|
|Mainly contains Dead cells.||Mainly contains living cells.|
|The flow is unidirectional.||The flow is Bidirectional.|
|Located in the centre of the vascular bundle.||Located on the outer side of the vascular bundle.|
|Transports minerals and waters from the roots.||
Transports prepared food materials to different parts of the plant.
Q.27.Define the following terms:- Angiosperms, Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.
Angiosperms: The flowering plants of the Kingdom Plantae are called the Angiosperms. They are the most diverse group of terrestrial- habitat plants. They are seed-producing plants.
Monocotyledons: The monocotyledons, also referred to as monocots. They are flowering plants or Angiosperms, which produce seeds containing only one cotyledon. Legumes are the best examples of monocotyledons.
Dicotyledons: The dicotyledons, also referred to as dicots. They are flowering plants or Angiosperms, which produce seeds containing two cotyledons. Grains are the best examples of dicotyledons.
Q.28.Give the differences between Dicot stem and monocot stem.
|Dicot Stem||Monocot Stem|
|Vascular bundles are arranged in rings.||Vascular bundles are scattered.|
|Pith is present.||Pith is absent.|
|Medullary rays are present.||Medullary rays are absent.|
|The hypodermis is chlorenchymatous.||The hypodermis is sclerenchymatous.|
|Undergo silica deposition.||Do not undergo silica deposition.|
Q.29.What is the flowering plant and non-flowering plant? Give examples.
Flowering plants are the most diverse group of terrestrial habitat plants, which produce flowers, fruits and seeds. These plants are also known as angiosperms. Altogether, there are 300,000 known species of flowering plants. Examples of angiosperms are Rose, lily, marigold, etc.
Non-flowering plants are the other types of plant that bear seeds directly without producing the flowers and fruits. These plants are also known as gymnosperms and they bear naked seeds, without covering. Therefore, there are very fewer species of gymnosperms compared to angiosperms. Examples of gymnosperms are cypress, pine, redwood, etc.
Q.30.Give the differences between sapwood and heartwood?
|It is dark in colour.||It is light in colour.|
|It is heavier in weight.||It is lighter in weight.|
|Its cells are comparatively older.||Its cells are comparatively younger.|
|It is the central part of the old stem.||It is the outer part of the old stem.|
|It is a durable wood and suitable for making furniture.||It is not a durable wood and not suitable for making furniture.|
|The heartwood has resistant to insects and fungal attacks.||The sapwood is more susceptible to insects and fungal attacks.|