The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes that is present inside eukaryotic cells. These structures are responsible for the production and transportation of proteins, fats and other essential molecules required for the functioning of a cell.
Although an essential component of the cell, not every type of cell has an endoplasmic reticulum, for instance, red blood cells do not have an ER.
Cells that play an important role in the production of proteins and oils have large amounts of ER. Structurally, there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum in a cell. They are:
- Rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Difference between Smooth and Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The most basic difference between RER and SER is the presence of ribosomes. When ribosomes attach to the surface of an ER, it gives a characteristic rough appearance; hence it is called Rough ER. On the other hand, a smooth ER does not have ribosomes on its surface.
The other major difference between the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and rough endoplasmic reticulum are summarized below:
|Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)||Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)|
|It possesses ribosomes attached to its membrane.||It does not have ribosomes on its membrane.|
|Formed of cisternae and a few tubules.||Formed of vesicles and tubules.|
|It participates in the synthesis of enzymes and proteins.||Synthesises glycogen, lipids and steroids.|
|It helps in the formation of lysosomes.||Gives rise to Spherosomes/ Oleosomes|
|It is internal and connected with the nuclear envelope.||It is peripheral and may be connected to plasmalemma.|
|Ribophorins are present and help ribosomes attach to ER||Devoid of Ribophorins.|
|It might develop from the nuclear envelope||Develops from Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.|
|Provides proteins and lipids for Golgi apparatus.||Provides vesicles for cis-face of Golgi apparatus.|
The most apparent difference between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum is the presence of ribosomes. Only the rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes on its surface, and that gives it its characteristic rough appearance.
Main Article: Endoplasmic Reticulum
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