Active immunity is the immunity induced in entities by the exposure of antigens. It is mediated by two well-defined mechanisms:
- Cell-mediated Immunity
- Humoral Immunity.
Both the immune pathways are different in their targets, components and methods of destroying pathogens.
Read on to explore what is humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity and the difference between the two.
Humoral Immunity vs Cell-mediated Immunity
The difference between humoral and cell-mediated immunity is given below in a tabular column.
It is mediated by T-cells.
|It is mediated by B-cells.|
|No formation of antibodies.|
Formation of antibodies.
Receptors are made used to identify antigens.
|Antibodies are made use to identify antigens.|
|T-cell receptors bind to the T-cell and the T-cells stick to the antigens.|
The antibodies produced by B-cells stick to the antigen.
It protects against virus, fungi and other intracellular bacterial pathogens.
|It protects against extracellular virus and bacteria.|
|It can eliminate tumour cells and thus protects against cancer.|
It cannot eliminate tumour cells.
Both CD4+ and CD8+ cells participate in cell-mediated immunity.
|Only TH cells participate in humoral immunity.|
|Mediates hypersensitivity type IV.|
Mediates hypersensitivity I, II and III.
It shows delayed response.
It is quick in response.
Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies. It shows a quick response against pathogens. It is the major defence mechanism against extracellular microbes trying to invade the host systems. The antibodies produced by the B-cells bind to the antigens and neutralize the microbes.
Cell-mediated immunity is facilitated by the T-helper and cytotoxic T-cells. Cytokines secreted by the T- helper cells activate phagocytic cells which phagocytose the pathogens and kill them.
Similarities between Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity
Following are the similarities between cell-mediated and humoral immunity:
- Both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are active immunities.
- Both have a lag period.
- Both are active against a wide variety of pathogens.
- Both possess immunological memories.
- Both the systems are not effective in immune-deficient individuals.
These were a few differences between humoral and cell-mediated immunity. To know more about the difference between humoral and cell-mediated immunity, keep visiting CoolGyan’S website or download CoolGyan’S app for further reference.
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