For sexual reproduction in plants, seeds are an essential element. This is formed as the end product of sexual reproduction in plants, and this is only for angiosperms and gymnosperms.
Gymnosperms seeds are exposed because they have no fruits or flowers. On the other hand, angiosperms have matured ovules that will develop within the fruit after fertilization. This will consist of an embryo that is enclosed in a protective outer covering called the seed coat. An embryo is of three types – a radicle, an embryo axis and cotyledons. Based on the number of Cotyledons, seeds are divided into two –
- Dicots (Dicotyledons)
Now, we will see what are Monocots and Dicots:
What are Monocot Seeds?
Monocots will have only one seed leaf inside the seed coat. Most of the time it is only a thin leaf because the endosperm to feed the new plant is not inside the seed leaf.
Examples of Monocot Seeds:
Rice, wheat, maize, bamboo, palm, banana, ginger, onion, garlic, lilies, daffodils, iris, tulips are examples of Monocot seeds.
Characteristics of Monocot Seeds:
- Cotyledon is single with an embryo.
- Pollen is single with the pore.
- Parts of the flower are in multiples of three.
- The parallel of major leaf veins.
- Scattered stem vascular bundles.
- Adventitious roots.
- Absent of secondary growth.
Structure of Seed Monocot:
The structure of Seed monocot is explained below:
- Embryos of monocot seeds have one large cotyledon, and that’s called scutellum. This scutellum is shield-shaped and is located towards the side of the embryo axis. In monocot seeds, the endosperm is covered from a proteinous layer called aleurone layer. The embryo axis of monocots is of shoot tip; they are enclosed in a sheath called coleoptile and a root tip radicle which is enclosed in coleorhiza.
- Most of the monocot seeds are thick, swollen endosperms for nourishment. They are also called albuminous. During the embryo development, the endosperms are not entirely developed, and it is the nourishing tissues in seeds.
What are Dicot Seeds?
Dicot seeds(Dicotyledons) are the seeds which have two embryonic leaves and cotyledons. They are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants were divided.
Examples of Dicot Seeds:
Bitter gourd seeds, Castor seeds, Mango seeds, Neem Seeds, Night Jasmine seeds, Papaya seeds and, Tamarind seeds.
Characteristics of Dicot seeds:
- It contains two cotyledons.
- The outer covering of dicot seed is the seed coat, which has two layers called outer testa and inner tegmen.
- The embryo stays within the seed coat and includes an embryonic axis and two cotyledons. These cotyledons are mostly fleshy and full of reserve food materials.
Structure of Dicot Seeds
Dicots are also known as Dicotyledons. All the flowering plants or angiosperms are divided into groups. So far there are about 2,00,00 species of cotyledons have been discovered. In dicots, the embryo will have an embryo axis and two cotyledons. The appearance of cotyledons is swollen as they preserve the food for developing seedlings. There are two ends for the embryo axis. The formation of shoot tip called plumule and root tip at the lower end called the radicle. This content is covered with a protective coat called seed coat which is made up of Testa and Tegmen.
The difference between the Monocot and dicot seeds are mentioned below:
Difference Between Monocots and Dicots Seeds:
|Monocots have single cotyledon||Dicots have two cotyledons|
|Leaves of monocots have parallel veins||Leaves of dicot have branched veins|
|Parts of the flowers in monocot are in threes||Parts of the flower in the dicot are more than three.|
|Vascular bundles are throughout the stem’s ground tissue||Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring|
|Monocots have one pore||Dicots have 3 pores|
|Fibrous root system||Taproot system|
|Thin and small, lacks food materials||Fleshy and stores food|
|Endosperm is present and stores food||The endosperm is absent and lacks food|
|Secondary cambium is absent||Secondary cambium is present|
|Monocot leaves have parallel venation||Dicot leaves have reticulate venation|
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
- What are the Three Types of Embryo?
Answer: The three types of the embryo are – embryo axis, radicle, cotyledon.
- What is Dicot? Give a Dicot Example.
Answer: It’s a group of flowering plants that have two seed leaves. Dicot Example- Bitter gourd seeds, Castor seeds, Mango seeds.
- What is Monocot? Give Monocot Example
Answer: Mono means one and a cotyledon is a seed leaf. Monocot Example – Rice, wheat, maize, bamboo, palm, banana, ginger.
- Can Dicot Seeds Store Food Materials?
Answer: Yes, dicot seeds can store food materials.
- What is Scutellum?
Answer: Embryos of monocot seeds have one large cotyledon which is called scutellum.
- What does an Embryo Consist of in Dicot?
Answer: In dicot, the embryo consists of the embryo axis and two cotyledons.
- How many Species of Dicotyledons are Discovered so far?
Answer: Around 2,00,000 species of dicotyledons have been discovered.
- What is the Seed Coat Made up of?
Answer: The seed coat is made up of an outer layer called testa and an inner layer called tegmen.