Introduction to Diabetes
Diabetes is also known as diabetes mellitus or blood sugar in common language. This is a type of metabolic disorder in which the production of the insulin hormone by the pancreas, gets minimal or the produced insulin cannot be used by the body effectively. Glucose comes from the food we take. The hormone insulin helps to transport sugar from the blood into all the cells of the body so that they may store and use it for energy. If sufficient insulin is not produced in the body, then in that case glucose stays in the body itself and this condition is called prediabetes.
Is Diabetes A Disease
No, diabetes is a disorder in which blood sugar levels are abnormally high because the body does not produce enough insulin to meet its needs. As it is a disorder, it harms the nerves and causes problems with sensation. This may damage the blood vessels and may result in heart stroke or attack. This may cause chronic kidney disease and vision loss. This disorder is caused due to the three major nutrients that make up most of the food carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Sugars are one of the three types of carbohydrates along with starch and fibers.
Symptoms of diabetes depend on how much blood sugar levels are increased. People who are suffering from prediabetes may not experience symptoms initially.
Symptoms are as follows:
- Feeling more thirsty
- Feeling more hunger
- The frequent sensation of urine
- Unexpected weight loss
- Feeling irritated
- Blurred vision
- Injuries are slowly healed
- Ketone group is present in the urine
- Sores that do not heal
- Feeling tired
Types Of Diabetes
There are generally 4 types of diabetes:
- Type 1 Diabetes – In this type, a person does not produce any insulin, and insulin is artificially injected via a syringe, pen, or pump. In this type of blood, sugar testing is critical to control as the glucose levels rapidly change. The person with this type of diabetes has to inject insulin multiple times a day. At present, there is no more for this type.
- Type 2 Diabetes – This is also called adult-onset diabetes. This is often diagnosed after the age of 45. In this case, people are able to produce insulin but are unable to use it efficiently. This type of insulin can be controlled by doing exercises and taking proper diet, but not in every condition. They need to take some medication to be cured.
- Pre-Diabetes – In this, glucose levels are high till a limited level and it can be diagnosed. This can be cured by proper diet, exercise, and change in lifestyle.
- Gestational Diabetes – This type of diabetes is developed during pregnancy. This also affects the body as the other types do. This type affects both the infant and the mother. In most cases, this type of diabetes gets cured after the birth of the baby.
Causes Of Diabetes
- Improper Diet – The excess glucose content we intake continuously can cause diabetes.
- Genetics – Genes play an important role to control each process in the body and a variation in even one gene can change the metabolism and can increase the risk.
- Medication – If a person is taking too many medicines, he is more prone to type 2 diabetes.
- Stress – Psychological problems may also lead a person to not take a proper diet.
- Weight – The body gets resistant to insulin if a person has more fatty tissues.
- Inactivity – Physical activity enhances our body to be fit and maintains good production of hormones in the body.
- High Blood Pressure – Having high blood pressure increases the risk of an increased type 2 diabetes.
Prevention Of Diabetes
- A person should take proper diet and regular exercise. It is easier to lose weight on a good diet
- Avoiding sugary food, drink, refined grains such as white bread and white rice in the food diet
- Medication should be taken if the condition cannot be controlled by diet and physical activities
- Should not consume alcohol and stop smoking
- If a person is suffering from obesity, then he/she must reduce his/her weight
- Should be very careful about high blood pressure
- A person should drink a lot of water so that other organs may not get affected.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
- How to Take Insulin?
Insulin is generally injected into the body via a syringe having a very small needle or it can also be taken with an insulin pen.
Steps to take insulin are as follows:
- Should wash hands thoroughly
- Remove the plastic cover of the insulin bottle and wipe the top of the bottle with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol.
- Pull back the plunger of the syringe and draw air into the syringe equal to the dose of insulin that you take.
- Insert the syringe needle through the rubber top of the insulin bottle.
- Insert air into the bottle by pushing the syringe plunger forward.
- Turn the bottle upside down.
- What Are The Complications If A Pregnant Woman Gets Infected Due To Diabetes?
A woman with diabetes should regularly be checked. She has to take a proper diet and do regular exercise so that it doesn’t affect the baby. If she has high blood sugar levels then she is at high risk and this can result in :
- Premature delivery
- Cesarean section or may have difficulty in delivery
- Miscarriage may occur
- May have birth defects
- The infant may have low blood glucose
- Chance of jaundice
- The baby may bear large in size
- The respiratory problem in an infant